RUNNING HEAD: READING PHILOSOPHIES
Leaning is a process is which knowledge is gained. How it is obtained, has lead educational theorist to debate which style of learning is best for literacy. From Jean-Jacques Rousseau to Lev S. Vygotsky, people have searched for a universal approach that all children may benefit from their expertise. Two such concepts, constructivism and explicit instruction have been discussed throughout the years. Each has its benefits and depending on what type an educator feels is prevalent in their class, the choice is primarily theirs. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) popularized the theory of constructivism. Constructivism style of learning allows a child use exploration as part of their learning process. The students have the opportunity to use prior knowledge to apply to new applications being learned. Whether the prior knowledge is accurate or not, constructivism gives them the chance to reinforce what they knew to be true or change the former way of thinking to achieve a new outcome. The ordinary reading and listening in a classroom does not exist but a more hand on approach. This permits the students to have an active learning experience. It is thought, that while attempting to figure out a problem or question, if a student is permitted to explore, they retain the information since it is self-taught. It is the teacher’s responsibility to create an environment that promotes student investigation as well as making the classroom as engaging as possible. “Constructivists rely on teaching practices that are rich in conversation” (Draper, 2002). It is through dialogue that the teacher is able to hear what the students have learned. As they speak amongst one another for a project or schoolwork in general, a constant flow of ideas is exchanged amongst them. “Explicit instruction is a systematic instructional approach that includes a set of delivery and design procedures”...
References: Pollard-Durodola, S. D., & Simmons, D. C. (2009). The Role of Explicit Instruction and Instructional Design in Promoting Phonemic Awareness Development and Transfer from Spanish to English. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2-3), 139-161.
Cambourne, B. (1999). Explicit and Systematic Teaching of Reading--A New Slogan?. Reading Teacher, 53(2), 126-27.
Oldfather, P. (1992). Sharing the Ownership of Knowing: A Constructivist Concept of Motivation for Literacy Learning.
Draper, R. (2002). School Mathematics Reform, Constructivism, and Literacy: A Case for Literacy Instruction in the Reform-Oriented Math Classroom. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(6), 520-29.
Muth, B., & Kiser, M. (2008). Radical Conversations: Part Two--Cultivating Social-Constructivist Learning Methods in ABE Classrooms. Journal Of Correctional Education, 59(4), 349-366.
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