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Submitted 14 June 2000. Resubmitted 15 October 2000. Accepted 18 December 2000. Revised 20 December 2000.
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 257–260, 2002 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 0160-7383/01/$22.00
Push and Pull Relationships
Seong-Seop Kim Sejong University, South Korea Choong-Ki Lee Dongguk University, South Korea
Uysal and Jurowski (1994) found that there is a relationship between push and pull factors. Dann (1977) referred to motivational inﬂuences on an individual as push factors. These are psychological needs which play a signiﬁcant role in causing a person to feel a disequilibrium that can be corrected through a tourism experience. These intrinsic motives include escape from personal/social pressures, social recognition/prestige, socialization/bonding, self-esteem, learning/discovery, regression, novelty/thrill, and distancing from crowds (Botha, Crompton and Kim 1999). In the model of Leiper (1979), a
RESEARCH NOTES AND REPORTS
References: Botha, C., J. L. Crompton, and S. Kim 1999 Developing a Revised Competitive Position for Sun/Lost City, South Africa. Journal of Travel Research 37(4):341–352. Dann, G. M. S. 1977 Anomie, Ego-Enhancement and Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 4:184–194. Leiper, N. 1979 The Framework of Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 6:390–407. Maslow, A. 1954 Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row. Plog, S. 1974 Why Destination Areas Rise and Fall in Popularity. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 14(4):55–58. Uysal, M., and C. Jurowski 1994 Testing the Push and Pull Factors. Annals of Tourism Research 21:844–846. Submitted 8 June 2000. Resubmitted 27 November 2000. Accepted 27 December 2000. Final version 5 February 2001. PII: S0160-7383(01)00043-3