2.After returning from a shopping trip with his mother, little Tommy reported, “I goed to the store and eated candy.” Why might a behaviorist such as B. F. Skinner have had some difficulty explaining Tommy's incorrect grammatical construction? What sort of theory could explain the errors? What would that explanation be?
B.F Skinner was an American Psychologist who invented the operant conditioning chamber. The chamber he set up had rats in it and a lever, once the rats pulled the lever they were given a piece of food. After this happened the rate of bar pressing would increase dramatically and remain high until the rat was no longer hungry. He was a firm believer of the idea that human free will was actually an illusion and any human action was the result of the consequences of that same action. If the consequences were bad, there was a high chance that the action would not be repeated; however if the consequences were good, the actions that lead to it would be reinforced. He called this the principle of reinforcement. B. F. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory would lead him to believe Tommy's parents spoke the way Tommy did after leaving the store, and his parents had no consequences for Tommy speaking in such a way but instead of giving him positive reinforcement for the incorrect grammar. The fact That Tommy has a learning disability which causes him to absorb words used around him, instead of absorbing both the vocabulary and the grammatical rules. Tommy’s grammatical errors show that language is acquired through osmosis, and that there is more to it than just memorization. Skinner’s way of operant conditioning mainly focused on cause and effect; by doing something good you are rewarded and by doing something bad you are punished. Even though tommy’s parents don’t reward him it would seem to Skinner that his grammatical errors were positively reinforced making it difficult for Skinner to provide an explanation for Tommy’s grammatical errors. Myers, D.G (2013). Psychology: 10th Edition in Modules. Worth Publishers, Inc.
4. Abraham Maslow suggested that “a person who is lacking food, love, and self-esteem would most likely hunger for food more strongly than anything else.” Conversely, the novelist Dostoyevsky wrote, “without a firm idea of himself and the purpose of his life, man cannot live even if surrounded with bread.” What evidence from the field of psychology might support each statement?
Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist who is best known for creating Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is represented by a pyramid with four different levels, the bottom of the hierarchy are the "Basic needs or Physiological needs" of a human being: food, water, sleep and sex. The next level is "Safety Needs: Security, Order, and Stability". These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to accomplish more. The third level of need is "Love and Belonging", which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others, such as with family and friends. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the "Esteem" level, the need to be competent and recognized, such as through status and level of success (Myers, 2013, p. 420 ). Maslow suggested that a person lacking food, love, and self-esteem would most likely hunger for food the most. Yet on the other hand the novelist Destoyeski viewed this issue in an entirely different matter. He wrote that without a firm idea of himself and the purpose of his life, man cannot live even if surrounded with bread. My opinion is that if a person does not know who they really are or what they are doing with their life then what is there to live for, therefore food wouldn’t matter without everything else to follow. Destoyeski quote, I...
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