Unit 8 P1- Explain the principal psychological perspectives
This psychological perspective focuses on an individual’s behaviour, the two theories which are Pavlov and Skinner. Pavlov’s theory focuses on classical conditioning; he was working with dogs to investigate their digestive system, he attaches monitors to their stomachs and mouths so he could measure the rate of salivation. The dog started to salivate when the laboratory assistant entered the room with a bowl of food however this was before they tasted the food. Pavlov believed that the dog was salivating because it had learned to associate the laboratory assistant with the food; he called this an unconditioned response. Skinners theory focused on operant conditioning, he worked mostly with rats to discover some of the key principles of learning new behaviours. He used a device called a Skinner box this box contains a lever, when pressed it releases a food pellet into the box reinforcing lever pressing behaviour. Skinner also investigated negative reinforcement by running a very low electric current on the floor of the Skinner box. An example of how humans use negative reinforcement is if you have a headache you take painkillers which results in the headache going away you are negative reinforced for taking a painkiller. Positive reinforcement:
This happens when the consequences following a particular behaviour is experienced as desirable. Negative reinforcement:
This happens when behaviour results in a consequence that removes something unpleasant. Bandura’s Theory focuses on the social learning, his experiment consisted on a doll experiment on childhood aggression and how their behaviour develops when watching someone else’s behaviour. There were two groups of children; the first group was the control group which did not see any adult role model however the second group was exposed to adult modelling aggression behaviour towards an inflatable doll and the adult was performing...
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