The three human and physical needs that are important in the relation to employee embezzlement are: need, rationalization, and opportunity. The employer should try and eliminate these elements up front, so there is less chance of embezzlement happening, but there will always be some way around all the obstacles
NEED as explained in our text is a physical condition that may be the cause of unusual debts and may cause an employee to think seriously about how to convert merchandise or money to his/her own use. Bad health coupled with the stressful necessity of having to pay a large debt may trigger an employee into committing an embezzlement act. Other personal acts of any employee, such as overcharging on one or more credit cards, or financing several items over a period of time with different due dates, may cause an employee to initiate a theft. Even though the desire for personal gain is far more common that the need for revenge or philanthropy, the later certainly cannot be disregarded in considering the component parts of the element of need. This means that if the employee has a lot of debt they are more likely to embezzle money to help pay bills or just to get ahead.
RATIONALIZATION is the state of mind of an individual before and after a theft has occurred. Rationalization is the psychological state that provides explanations or excuses for one's own acts, usually without the individual being aware that such explanations may not be the real motives. These rationalizations are usually categorized
in four ways: 1. "borrowing, not stealing" 2. lack of moral restraint 3. moral right, and 4. reward within the work group. These are just ways of make excuses to make the individual feel better about the stuff that is stolen.
OPPORTUNITY is usually afforded by management through the omission of controls or the inadequacy of existing controls. The control of opportunity is the key to controlling the elements of need and rationalization. The lack of opportunity will eliminate the need to embezzle, but it doesn't keep it from happening.
The following behavioral conditions are what should be watched for by the employer. First the employer should be observant for employees who exhibit sudden changes in spending habits that seem to be above the employee's regular standard of living. Such as unordinary purchases like house, trips, and shopping sprees. Second and employer should pay attention when an employee has had a major illness or a member of their family has had such illness and a large debt has been incurred, or when an employee simply has financial difficulties. Third an employer should observe an employee who has an apparent and unusual devotion to his/her work. This should be especially true of any trusted employees who may handle large amounts of money or who may be approving purchases or vendor contracts. Fourth an employee in a fiduciary position who strongly objects to procedural changes or closer supervision should be audited and/or watched. This resistance may be fear of the discovery of an illegal act. One employee can bring down a whole company and the employer needs to do what they can to prevent embezzlement.
Fencing is use to secure large areas. The three basic types of fencing are chain-link, barbed wire, and barbed tape (concertina wire). These types of fences are all for different types of security.
A properly installed and maintained chain-link fence is attractive due to its clean, neat lines. Chain-link fencing poses less of a safety hazard than some other types of fences because it does not have barbs, yet its small openings still prevent intrusion. In addition, it is easily and inexpensively maintained. Barbed wire is seldom used to secure perimeters due to its unsightliness and the danger of inflicting wounds on those who come into contact with it. When barbed wire is used to mark boundaries, it should be approximately five feet high and consist...
References: Essay #1 Principles of Security and Crime Prevention; Pamela Collins, Truett Ricks, Clifford Van Meter; Fourth Edition; Pages 221-223.
Essay #2 Principles of Security and Crime Prevention; Pamela Collins, Truett Ricks, Clifford Van Meter; Fourth Edition; Pages 254-256.
Essay #3 Principles of Security and Crime Prevention; Pamela Collins, Truett Ricks, Clifford Van Meter; Fourth Edition; Pages 381-386.
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