In 1829, Sir Robert Peel created the Metropolitan Police when he served as Home Secretary of England. He created the first modern police force, the Metropolitan Police in London. According to Peel, the real key for policing is "the police are the people and the people are the police (Wikipedia 2010).” It was his belief that prevention of crime could be accomplished without intruding into the lives of citizens. He set about nine principles that still seem to be true and useful in the present day world when observed. Peel established nine principles to his theory of policing. The National Crime Prevention Council defines Peels’ nine principles as follows: 1. The basic mission for whom the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. 4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. 5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient. 7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition; the police are public and the public are the police. The police being only full-time individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens. 8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. The relationship between police and citizens in American society is generally understood as a development from the political era, when police were introduced in American cities in the 1840s to the early 1900s; to the reform era, stretching across the middle part of the 20th century from the 1930s to the 1970s; and then to the community era of current policing since the 1970s. There lacked an involvement of minorities in policing throughout these different eras. Communities of color were largely powerless during the political era and therefore not able to influence police strategy. During the reform era, police strategy was determined largely on the basis of law, although communities of color were generally unprotected. In today's community era of policing, one of the beliefs is the requirement for an organized community working in partnership with an approachable police department. Peel established the police, also known as "Bobbies” or “Peelers.” The introduction of “beats” was performed by Bobbies as a form of patrolling. This was the beginning of patrolling of communities on foot, bike, etc. as a closer approachable encounter with the community. Peel stated that the ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions and they must secure the willing support of the public in voluntary performance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. Then and now, in our diverse society, it is necessary for police to comprehend the different cultures through multi-cultural training and education so they can understand their communities. As noted in one analysis of law enforcement in multicultural communities, “The more professional a peace officer is, the more sophisticated he or she is in responding to people of all backgrounds and the more successful he or she is in cross-cultural contact.” There must be a respect of the public in order to secure the cooperation in voluntary...
References: Community Relations Service. (2003). Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence Between Police and Citizens. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/crs/pubs/principlesofgoodpolicingfinal092003.htm
Larrabee, A. K. (2007). Law Enforcement: Sir Robert Peel 's Concept of Community Policing in Today 's Society.Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/435980/law_enforcement_sir_robert_peels_concept.html?cat=17
National Crime Prevention Council. (2006). Crime Prevention History and Theory [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.ncpc.org/training/powerpoint-trainings/crime-prevention-history-and-theory.ppt.
Wikimedia Foundation Inc. (2010). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Robert_Peel
Please join StudyMode to read the full document