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Prevention of Clean Air

By ShahabG1 Jan 21, 2013 430 Words
Air Pollution: Key Environmental Issues in Pakistan(W-99) | | |  | | | |Mahmood A. Khwaja and Shaheen Rafi Khan | |2005 | |Air pollution is rapidly growing environmental problem in Pakistan. Highly inefficient energy use, accelerated growth in vehicle | |population and vehicle kilometers traveled, increasing industrial activity without adequate air emission treatment or control, | |open burning of solid waste including plastic, and use of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) are some of the major causes of | |deterioration of ambient air quality. | |Some key environmental issues about air quality in Pakistan have been assessed and discussed, using the Pressure, State, Impact | |and Response (P-S-I-R) framework. | |Rapidly growing energy demand, fuel substitution such as high emitting coal and oil, and high-energy intensity are the key factors| |contributing to air pollution. Some factors contributing to high-energy intensity are transmission and distribution losses in | |power generation, fuel prices subsidies on diesel and ageing vehicles, which are primarily diesel powered. | |  | |The state of air quality has been assessed by examining the emission levels of air pollutants and ambient air quality. The average| |increase in sulfur dioxide across major emitting sectors (industry, transport and power) has been 23-fold over the past 20 years. | |Similarly, nitrogen oxides increased to 25-fold in the power sector and carbon dioxide increased an average of fourfold. | |Pakistan’s per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are far below the global average. | |Ambient air quality data show that carbon monoxide levels in Karachi and Lahore considerably exceed WHO’s recommended levels. | |Particulate matter content cross safety levels in the major industrial cities in the Punjab province. The reported lead levels in | |ambient air sites in Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore and Karachi are also quite high compared to WHO’s permissible levels. | |The health impacts of air, water pollution and productivity losses from deforestation and soil erosion have been assessed at 1.71 | |billion dollars, or 3.3 percent of GNP, in the early 90s. The losses attributed to air pollution, in terms of health care costs, | |amount to 500 million dollars a year. | |To combat air pollution, the government has formulated acts and policies, including the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP). | |Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEPA-97) covers air, water, soil and noise pollution, including hazardous waste | |disposal and vehicular pollution. Its section 15, sub-sections 1 to 3, pertain to regulation of motor vehicles. | |NEAP reflects a renewed commitment to environment and focuses on taking immediate measures in four priority areas of concerns – | |air, water, solid waste, and ECO system management – to achieve a visible improvement in the quality of environment, including | |air. |

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