The Ten Management Roles
The ten roles explored in this theory have extensive explanations which are briefly developed here:
* Figurehead: All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial obligations. In this light, the manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority. * Leader: Duties are at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and include structuring and motivating subordinates, overseeing their progress, promoting and encouraging their development, and balancing effectiveness. * Liaison: Describes the information and communication obligations of a manager. One must network and engage in information exchange to gain access to knowledge bases. * Monitor: Duties include assessing internal operations, a department’s success and the problems and opportunities which may arise. All the information gained in this capacity must be stored and maintained. * Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views into the organisation and to subordinates. This requires both filtering and delegation skills. * Spokesman: Serves in a PR capacity by informing and lobbying others to keep key stakeholders updated about the operations of the organisation. * Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work to delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process. * Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organisation is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support. * Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocating and overseeing financial, material and personnel resources. * Negotiator: Is a specific task which is integral for the spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles. As a secondary filtering, Mintzberg distinguishes these roles by their responsibilities towards information. Interpersonal roles, categorised as the figurehead, leader and liason, provide information. Informational roles link all managerial work together by processing information. These roles include the monitor, the disseminator and the spokesperson. All the remaining roles are decisional, in that they use information and make decisions on how information is delivered to secondary parties. Generalist and specialist management
The core of Mitzberg’s Ten Managerial Roles is that managers need to be both organisational generalists and specialists. This is due to three reasons: * External frustrations including operational imperfections and environmental pressures. * Authority disputes which upset even basic routines.
* The expected fallibility of the individual and human, manager. Mintzberg’s summary statement may be that the role of a manager is quite varied and contradictory in its demands, and that it is therefore not always the lack of managerial prowess, but the complexity of individual situations demanding a variety of roles, which troubles today’s manager. The ten roles, therefore, can be applied to any managerial situation where an examination of the levels to which a manager uses each of the ten ‘roles’ at his or her disposal is required Written by: Monica Kenney
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