Non-lethal technologies generally fall into four categories: chemicals, electrical devices, blunt impact munitions and directed energy. This article focuses on the military applications of anti-personnel non-lethal weapons. Among such weapons are advanced incapacitating agents, electrical shock devices, laser, and acoustic and high power microwave directed energy weapons. When properly used, non-lethal weapons should result in no injuries, fatalities or after effects. non-lethal weapons are useful in crowd control and riot situations, where hostile forces take cover in crowds, in operations in urban terrain, or anti-terrorist actions where minimize collateral damage, or in counter-terror activities, in hostages situations. But the typical Taser has a couple of limitations. Because the pins connect to the firing mechanism through wires, the typical Taser has a range limited to the length of the wires -- about 35 feet (10.6 meters). And while a Taser works well for taking down a single subject, it's not easy to reload a fired Taser device -- something that may be necessary in crowd control situations. With that in mind, Taser introduced a new concept in ECD technology the Taser eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP). The XREP looks like a high-tech shotgun shell. That's not by accident Taser designed the XREP so that military or law enforcement officers could fire one from a standard 12-gauge shotgun. But instead of firing pellets or a slug, these shells fire a small, self-contained Taser device capable of delivering the same NMI effect as a handheld Taser gun.
Creating a device small enough to fit into a shotgun shell casing but powerful enough to incapacitate a subject was no easy task. The development team at Taser had to find a way to balance power with size. Not only did they need the device to travel farther than a standard Taser, but also to have the right amount of mass. If it had too little mass, it wouldn't travel far enough. But if it had...
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