Leadership Theories - Northouse, Peter Guy. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2010. Print.

Topics: Leadership, Sociology, Motivation Pages: 5 (1243 words) Published: August 29, 2011
Leadership Theories
* leadership requires followers

Path-Goal: creating a shared, common goal or vision and following through to reach the goal or vision by determining the best path * defines goals, clarifies path, removes obstacles, provides support * designed to explain how leaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selecting specific behaviors that are best suited to subordinates’ needs * in theory, it provides a set of assumptions about how various leadership styles interact with characteristics of subordinates and the work setting to affect the motivation of subordinates; in practice, it provides direction about how leaders can help subordinates to accomplish their work in a satisfactory manner * positive features of the path-goal theory

* provides a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect subordinates’ satisfaction and work performance * it attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership * provides a very practical model – it underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates * fairly straightforward – an effective leader has to attend to the needs of subordinates * provides a set of general recommendations based on the characteristics of subordinates and tasks for how leaders should act in various situations if they want to be effective; it informs us about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement oriented * leaders should adapt their styles to the situation or to the motivational * a leader must carefully assess the subordinates and their tasks, and then choose an appropriate leadership style to match those characteristics * needs of their subordinates, as well as utilize not only one of the leadership traits, but a combination of them * Directive Leadership: characterizes a leader who gives subordinates instructions about their task, including what is expected of them, how it is to be done, and the time line for when it should be completed * a directive leader sets clear standards of performance and makes the rules and regulations clear to subordinates * Supportive Leadership: consists of being friendly and approachable as a leader and includes attending to the well-being and human needs of subordinates * leaders using supportive behaviors go out of their way to make work pleasant for subordinates; in addition, supportive leaders treat subordinates as equals and give them respect for their status * Achievement-Oriented Leadership: characterized by a leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level possible * The leader establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates and seeks continuous improvement * In addition to expecting a lot from subordinates, achievement-oriented leaders show a high degree of confidence that subordinates are capable of establishing and accomplishing challenging goals * Subordinate Characteristics: determine how a leader’s behavior is interpreted by subordinates in a given work context * Researchers have focused on subordinate’s needs for affiliation, preferences for structure, desires for control, and self-perceived level of task ability * these characteristics and many others determine the degree to which subordinates find the behavior of a leader an immediate source of satisfaction or instrumental to some future satisfaction * needs for affiliation – prefer supportive leadership because friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction * desires for control – path-goal theory suggests that for subordinates with an internal locus of control participative leadership is most satisfying because it allows them to feel in charge of their work and to be an integral part of decision making * subordinates perception...
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