Topics: Bacteria, Urinary tract infection, Staphylococcus aureus Pages: 8 (4516 words) Published: November 1, 2014

Chapter 1
The Problem
Today’s technological innovation and medical advances gave birth to formulation of synthetic drugs used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, diarrhea, arthritis and other diseases. These pharmaceuticals are costly and to a point, inaccessible to many Filipinos. These may also pose adverse effects like nausea, dyspnea, and diarrhea. Researchers are challenged to produce natural medicines, which could be lower in cost and more synergistic in their effect. One promising plant which is the subject of this study is the seaweed locally known as “Lato”(Caulerpa lentillefera). “Lato” (Caulerpa lentillefera) is highly nourishing for it contains high amount of minerals, balanced amino acid profile and rich in iodine. Being a good source of magnesium, this seaweed helps reduce high blood pressure and prevents heart attack, it is also useful for people suffering from thyroid problems. It can be eaten raw as an appetizer, dipped in lemon juice or vinegar mixed with onion and/or other spices. It can be used in sushi and as an ingredient in salmon rolls, and many more. In the Philippines, sea grapes are abundant in Panlatuan Cove of Pilar, Sorsogon, Philippines. This seaweed grows naturally and abundantly in an area of about ten hectares, as estimated by the municipal agriculture office technician. The term “panlatuan” is a local dialect meaning, a place where “lato” came from. The cove covers the villages of Lungib, San Rafael and Inapugan. It has pure seawater, which is considered as high saline, with 28-31 ppt as tested by a refractometer. Local folks observed that said seaweed is more abundant from October to may than during rainy season when the level of salinity decreases. The “lato” from this area, can now be found at the wet markets of the provinces of Albay, Sorsogon, and even in some parts of Metro manila. (Mallapre, Adelfa, 2014) Green algae are diverse group of organisms that contain the same kinds of pigments found in vascular plants: chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids. The majority of green algae are small, unicellular, or filamentous. Very few species of green algae are marine; most are fresh-water species. A common marine form is sea lettuce. (Kerleskint, George Jr, 1988) Infections may be caused by bacteria (including mycobacteria, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, and rickettsiae), viruses, fungi, or parasites. Infection may be endogenous or exogenous. In endogenous infections, the microorganism (usually a bacterium) is a component of the patient’s indigenous flora. Indigenous infections can occur when the microorganism is aspirated from the upper to the lower respiratory tract or when it penetrates the skin or mucosal barrier as a result of trauma or surgery. In contrast, in exogenous infections, the microorganism is acquired from the environment (e.g., from soil or water) or from another person or an animal. Although it is important to establish the cause of an infection, the differential diagnosis is based on a careful history, physical examination, and appropriate radiographic and laboratory studies, including the selection of appropriate specimens for microbiologic examination. Results of the history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory studies allow the physician to request tests for the microorganisms most likely to be the cause of the infection. (Baron, EJ,, 1994) Members of the genus staphylococcus (staphylococci) are gram-positive cocci that tend to be arranged in grape-like clusters. Worldwide, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of acute purulent infections. Other species are common in the skin flora, but produce lower grade disease, typically in association with some mechanical abridgment of the host such as an indwelling catheter. In growing cultures, the cells of S. aureus are uniformly gram-positive and regular in size, fitting together in clusters with the precision of pool balls. In older cultures, in...
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