February 25, 2014
Conductivity of Solutions of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
The purpose of this experiment was to use electrical conductivity on ionic, molecular acids, and covalent compounds in order to determine the properties of each compound. Introduction
In chemistry, the term of an aqueous solution is defined as a substance that is soluble in water. For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water, or other known as table salt. In many cases when a substance is dissolved in water, it forms ions, an electrically charged atom. When this reaction occurs it is called an electrolyte at which the solution conducts electricity. The amount of the conductivity value will depend on the ability of the aqueous solution to conduct electricity. Strong electrolytes are solutes that exist either completely or nearly completely as ions, which results in a high conductivity value. As it is the opposite of a weak electrolyte were little electricity is conducted.
In this laboratory experiment, multiple solutions will be analyzed by a conductivity probe to determine the conductivity value of each aqueous solution. The readings will appear on screen of the Power Macintosh, which includes Chemistry With Vernier and Logger Pro, this allows the experiment to be taken. For each compound being tested in this experiment, each will have a 0.05M concentration. The hypothesis in this experiment is that Group A will have the highest amounts of conductivity, Group B will have the second highest amounts of conductivity, and Group C will have the very least.
For this laboratory experiment, goggles were obtained and then worn for cautionary needs. Then the preparation of the computer took place in order to monitor the conductivity. The file of the Experiment 13 folder was opened in Chemistry with Vernier. Which the Meter window was then displayed with live conductivity reading in the units of microsiemens. The conductivity probe was already attached to the interface box. The interface box was then plugged into the computer were the probe was set on the 0-20,000 microsiemens position. The Group A solution containers were then obtained. The measurement of each solution then took place in the experiment. In order to prevent the probe from tipping over the cylinder containing the contents, a ring stand with a utility clamp attached to it was used for the experiment. Each vial was then placed within the utility clamp, and the probe was then placed in the solution to the point that the hole near then end of the probe was completely submerged. Once the conductivity reading began to stabilize on the screen, the data was recorded. Each vial was tested one at a time. Before taking the readings of the next solution, the probe was surrounded by a 250mL beaker filled with water. Then the end of the probe that was submerged in the solution was then rinsed by a wash bottle, and the probe was wiped clean with a tissue. Once group A was finished, repeated steps were taken to complete Group B and Group C.
The contents being measured were: NaCl, CaCl2, AlCl3, HC2H3O2, H3BO3, HCl, CH3OH, C2H6O2, distilled H2O, and tap H2O. All but the distilled and tap water had a concentration of 0.05M.
This table shows the average conductivity value of each compound taken in microsiemens
. Also, how many ions each solution contains, measured in few, many, or no ions.
Sample calculations for the measurement of conductivity:
The readings of the probe will constantly bounce up and down. Once it starts to stabilize, an estimated guess on the average value shall be taken. Ex. Readings goes through values 14780, 14813, 14820, and 14,788.
Estimated average value= 14800
Based on the recorded values in the data table, the data shows that the hypothesis is correct in this experiment. The data shows that Group A has a much higher value of conductivity than...
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