Knee Injury Case Study Part 5
What are the primary movements of the knee joint?
The primary movements of the knee joint are flexion and extension but can also slightly rotate. What muscle groups are the most important in flexion and extension of the knee? The muscle groups most important are the quadriceps and the hamstrings. The quadriceps extend the knee using the following muscles; rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis. The hamstrings are responsible for flexing the knee using the following muscles; semimembranosus, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. What happens to muscle and bone tissue when they are not used? When muscle and bone tissues are not used they become weak and basically waste away, because when not in use less blood and less nutrients are supplied. Why could a tendon be used to replace a ligament?
Tendons and ligaments are composed of the same tissue (dense regular connective tissue), therefore tendons can be used to replace a torn or damaged ligament. Consider the overall structure of the knee joint. (You may wish to draw a picture or label a diagram.) What type of membrane lines the joint? What is its function? Was it cut in any way during the surgery? Synovial membrane lines the knee joint, it produces synovial fluid which lubricates the joint to reduce friction between bones and the joint. It was likely cut during the surgery. Of the structures injured (patella, MCL, ACL, menisci) which will heal the fastest? Why? Menisci will heal faster and may not even need surgery if the injury is minor, instead it could be healed with physical therapy. Every incision will form some sort of scar. What is the term for scarring of a tissue? What cell type is most important for scar formation? The term for scarring of a tissue is Keloid. Stem cell is the cell type most important for scar formation.