The Essence of Chemistry & Significant Contributors to scientific development | 1 HONORS CHEMISTRY
Introduction to Chemistry Notes
Make sure you can
basic questions and
concepts so that you
can build on the
basics to understand
the complex material
These are just the
basics of what is
covered in class
lectures. This should
not be the only
resources you use to
Who developed the
concept of atoms?
What are atoms?
What is the Law of
conservation of mass?
What is the law of
What is Dalton’s
Atomic Structure (Experimental Evidence for
Atomic Structure): CH.2
Circa 400-5 BCE (Greek Philosopher Democritus)
a. Proposed the idea of matter being comprised of
small, indivisible, indistructible particles (atomos)
2. Lavoisier (18th century)
a. proposed the law of conservation of mass
matter cannot be created or destroyed
atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a
chemical reaction, they are simply rearranged
to form new substances
a. proposes the law of definite proportions/Law of
given compound will always contain the same
proportion of chemical elements by mass.
4. Englishman John Dalton (19th Century)
a. formulated the Atomic Theory (aka: Dalton’s Atomic
concludes the following
1. Matter is composed of tiny particles
2. All atoms of a given element are
3. The atoms of a given element are
different from those of any other
4. Atoms of different elements combine
in small, whole number ratios to form
compounds. A given compound
always has the same relative numbers
and types of atoms (Law of Definite
Proportions), but different
compounds containing the same
elements can be formed, by
combining elements in different small
The Essence of Chemistry & Significant Contributors to scientific development | 2 HONORS CHEMISTRY
What is the Law of
What is Chemistry?
What are the branches
Who discovered the
Proton, Neutron, and
whole number ratios (Law of Multiple
EX.1) 12 grams of carbon can combine with 16 grams of oxygen to form carbon monoxide(CO), but 12 grams of carbon can lso combine with 32 grams of oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2). The ratio of oxygen masses that combine with 12 grams of carbon is 16 : 32 or 1 : 2 (whole number ratios)
Experimental Evidence for the Atomic Model:
1. Several experiments were being carried out, and ideas
formulated, in the late 19th and 20th centuries that began to identify the subatomic particles that comprise the atom
along with their position and nature.
Who came up with the
Periodic Table of
How many elements
does it contain?
Summary of Early Experiments Used to Formulate Atomic
How is the PTE
ratio of the
Charge on the
The nucleus of
an atom and
What is the symobl for
What is the symbol for
a gas, liquid, and solid?
What is the yield
Why do we need to
What are groups?
What are periods?
The Essence of Chemistry & Significant Contributors to scientific development | 3 HONORS CHEMISTRY
exist in atom’s
In the very early 1900’s, the plum-pudding model (electrons dispersed in a “pudding” of positive...
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