Introduction to Chemistry Notes: Atomic Structure Notes

Topics: Atom, Chemical element, Neutron Pages: 6 (1280 words) Published: January 20, 2015
The Essence of Chemistry & Significant Contributors to scientific development | 1 HONORS CHEMISTRY

Introduction to Chemistry Notes
Make sure you can
understand these
basic questions and
concepts so that you
can build on the
basics to understand
the complex material
These are just the
basics of what is
covered in class
lectures. This should
not be the only
resources you use to
study.
Who developed the
concept of atoms?
What are atoms?
What is the Law of
conservation of mass?

What is the law of
definite proportions?
What is Dalton’s
Atomic Theory?

Atomic Structure (Experimental Evidence for
Atomic Structure): CH.2
[Section 1]
1.

Circa 400-5 BCE (Greek Philosopher Democritus)
a. Proposed the idea of matter being comprised of
small, indivisible, indistructible particles (atomos)
2. Lavoisier (18th century)
a. proposed the law of conservation of mass
i.
matter cannot be created or destroyed
ii.
atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a
chemical reaction, they are simply rearranged
to form new substances
3. Proust
a. proposes the law of definite proportions/Law of
constant proportions
i.
given compound will always contain the same
proportion of chemical elements by mass.
4. Englishman John Dalton (19th Century)
a. formulated the Atomic Theory (aka: Dalton’s Atomic
Theory)
i.
concludes the following
1. Matter is composed of tiny particles
callled atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are
identical
3. The atoms of a given element are
different from those of any other
given element
4. Atoms of different elements combine
in small, whole number ratios to form
compounds. A given compound
always has the same relative numbers
and types of atoms (Law of Definite
Proportions), but different
compounds containing the same
elements can be formed, by
combining elements in different small

The Essence of Chemistry & Significant Contributors to scientific development | 2 HONORS CHEMISTRY

What is the Law of
Multiple proportions?

What is Chemistry?
What are the branches
of Chemistry?
Who discovered the
Proton, Neutron, and
electron?What are
their symbols.

whole number ratios (Law of Multiple
proportions)
EX.1) 12 grams of carbon can combine with 16 grams of oxygen to form carbon monoxide(CO), but 12 grams of carbon can lso combine with 32 grams of oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2). The ratio of oxygen masses that combine with 12 grams of carbon is 16 : 32 or 1 : 2 (whole number ratios)

Experimental Evidence for the Atomic Model:
1. Several experiments were being carried out, and ideas
formulated, in the late 19th and 20th centuries that began to identify the subatomic particles that comprise the atom
along with their position and nature.

Who came up with the
Periodic Table of
Elements?
How many elements
does it contain?

Summary of Early Experiments Used to Formulate Atomic
Theory
Scientist

How is the PTE
organized?

Experiment
Cathode Ray
tube

Negative
particles of
some kind
exist

Electron

J.J Thomson
(circa 1900)

Cathode Ray
deflection

Mass: charge
ratio of the
electron
determined

Electron

Milikan
(1908)

Oil drop
experiment

Charge on the
electron

Electron

Rutherford,
Marsden, and
Geiger (1909)

Gold foil
experiment

Nucleus with
positive
charge
present in
atom

The nucleus of
an atom and
the proton

Chadwick

Possible
existence of

Particles with
no charge

Neutron

What is the symobl for
reaction?
What is the symbol for
a gas, liquid, and solid?

What is the yield
symbol?
Why do we need to
balance equations?

Relating

Crookes (Late
19th Century)

What are groups?

What are periods?

Knowledge
Gained

The Essence of Chemistry & Significant Contributors to scientific development | 3 HONORS CHEMISTRY

neutron

exist in atom’s
nucleus

In the very early 1900’s, the plum-pudding model (electrons dispersed in a “pudding” of positive...
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