Human Body Systems Outline

Topics: Immune system, Blood, Muscle Pages: 21 (7151 words) Published: June 1, 2010
The Human Body Systems

By Yash Dhayal, Mathew Nemet, and Tom Battaglini

Table Of Contents
* Skeletal system
- Functions and Parts
* Muscular System
- Types of Muscles
* Integumentary System
- Functions
* Circulatory System
- Parts of the Circulatory System
* Immune System
- Organs and Cells of he Immune System
* Respiratory System
- Parts of the Respiratory System
* Digestive System
* Urinary System
* Endocrine System
* Nervous System

* The human body itself is a complex system—many sets of interacting parts that work to keep the human machine running. On any single day, we can estimate that your heart beats 103,689 times, your blood travels 168,000,000 miles, your digestive system processes 7.8 pounds of waste, and your lungs take in 438 cubic feet of air. These are only a few of the multitude of functions the human body performs. And while the least little mishap could cause a glitch in the system, amazingly, day in and day out over most of our lifetime, our bodies operate almost flawlessly.

Skeletal System
Skeletal system is made up of your bones, ligaments, and tendons. It determines the shape and symmetry of the body; acts as a protective device for your organs; acts as a firm base for the attachments of muscles (without bones, your muscles would not function properly); and the marrow tissues in the cavity of the bones produces red cells and some white cells, required in your blood.

Skeletal System Functions
* Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached. * Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. The brain is protected by the surrounding skull as the heart and lungs are encased by the sternum and rib cage. * Bodily movement is carried out by the interaction of the muscular and skeletal systems. For this reason, they are often grouped together as the musculo-skeletal system. Muscles are connected to bones by tendons. Bones are connected to each other by ligaments. Where bones meet one another is typically called a joint. Muscles which cause movement of a joint are connected to two different bones and contract to pull them together. An example would be the contraction of the biceps and a relaxation of the triceps. This produces a bend at the elbow. The contraction of the triceps and relaxation of the biceps produces the effect of straightening the arm. * Blood cells are produced by the marrow located in some bones. An average of 2.6 million red blood cells are produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver. * Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood, buildup will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply. Parts of the Skeletal Sysytem

There are 2 parts of the Skeletal system:
* The axial skeleton
- consists of bones that form the axis of the body and support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk. * The appendicular skeleton
- composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. The Axial Skeleton
The axial skeleton contains:
* The Skull
-Is the bony framework of the head. It is comprised of the eight cranial and fourteen facial bones. * The Sternum
-A flat, dagger shaped bone located in the middle of the chest. Along with the ribs, the sternum forms the rib cage that protects the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels from damage.  * The Ribs

-thin, flat, curved bones that form a protective cage around the organs in the upper body. They are comprised 24 bones arranged in 12 pairs. * The Vertebral Column (also called the backbone, spine, or spinal column)

-consists of a series of 33 irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae. These 33 bones are divided into five...
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