history 1302 unit 1 outline

Topics: Indigenous peoples of the Americas, North America, United States Pages: 5 (1819 words) Published: September 9, 2014
Chapter 1
Ancient America Before 1492
I. Archaeology and History
1. Differences between Archaeologists and Historians—Both study the past, but they employ different methods; archaeologists focus on physical objects such as bones and pots, while historians focus on writing. 2. Writing and Language as Evidence—Writing is defined as a system of symbols that record spoken language; originated 8,000 years ago in China, Egypt, and Central America. Ancient Americans invented spoken languages, moved across the globe, engaged in trade and warfare, worshipped gods, and possessed forms of symbolic representation, but they did not write; what we know about these years we learn from archaeologists. 3. Artifacts and Environmental Clues as Evidence—Archaeologists study artifacts and physical objects; also look at environmental factors: scrutinize soil, geological strata, pollen, and climate to find out about ancient and pre-contact Americans; better to abbreviate and oversimplify this history than to ignore it. II. The First Americans

A. African and Asian Origins
1. Pangaea and Continental Drift—Before human evolution, continents of North and South America were detached from the common landmass of Pangaea. About 240 million years ago, continental drift pushed the landmass apart, allowing oceans to surround land much like our current geography. 2. Homo Sapiens—Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa at about 400,000 BP; early humans, Homo erectus, appeared in Africa about two million years ago. Homo sapiens migrated to Africa, Europe, and Asia, but the geographic separation from North and South America prevented migration there. 3. Migration across Beringia—Two factors made migration possible; first, people adapted to the frigid climate; second, the Wisconsin glaciation (25,000 BP to 14,000 BP) caused the sea level to drop so that people could cross the land bridge of Beringia between Siberia and Alaska. 4. Paleo-Indians—Archaeologists call the first migrants Paleo-Indians; they traveled to North America in small bands looking for wildlife to hunt; probably arrived after 15,000 BP. B. Paleo-Indian Hunters

1. Abundance of Game—The abundance of game animals made hunting easy; Paleo-Indians traveled along the eastern side of Canada’s Rocky Mountains or traveled by boat along the Pacific Coast; they migrated to the tip of South America within one thousand years. 2. Clovis Point—Early Paleo-Indians used a spearhead called a Clovis point, named for the place in New Mexico where it was excavated; they hunted mammoths, bison, and smaller animals; shared common ancestry and way of life. 3. Big-Game Extinction and Changes in Paleo-Indian Way of Life—About 11,000 BP, large mammals became extinct, probably due to warming climates and perhaps overhunting; to compensate, Paleo-Indian hunters preyed on smaller animals and dedicated more energy to foraging—collecting bugs, berries, and fruits; changes produced great cultural diversity. III. Archaic Hunters and Gatherers

A. Great Plains Bison Hunters
1. Folsom Points—Some hunters began to focus on the Rocky Mountains in the Great Plains after the extinction of mammoths. Archaic Indians hunted with Folsom points, discovered by archaeologists in New Mexico between two ribs of a giant bison; hunters moved frequently with their prey and developed trapping techniques to kill large numbers of animals with spears. 2. Advantage of Bows and Arrows—Bows and arrows reached hunters from the north around AD 500; largely replaced spears; hunters could shoot animals from farther away; weapons were easier to make and less costly to lose; Paleo-Indians did not have access to horses. B. Great Basin Cultures

1. Varying Zones of Habitation—Great Basin Indians lived between the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, an area of environmental diversity that featured hot deserts, rainy marshes, and cold, treeless mountains. 2. Plants as a Primary Food Source—Wide variety of animal life, but Great Basin...
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