Grammar basics

Topics: Sentence, Syntactic entities, Clause Pages: 4 (1782 words) Published: November 5, 2014


What is a sentence? How can it be defined? Provide examples. Explain. What is a phrase? Provide examples. Explain.
What is a clause? Provide examples. Explain.
What is the difference between a clause and a phrase? Provide examples. Explain. What is a compound sentence? How is it defined? What characterizes a compound sentence? Provide examples. Explain. What is a coordinate sentence? Provide examples. Explain.

What are coordinators (coordinating conjunctions)? What is their function in a sentence? Provide examples. Explain. What is a complex sentence? Provide examples. Explain.
What is subordination? Provide examples. Explain.
Name and exemplify the types of complex clauses (or subordinate clauses). What are subordinating conjunctions? List them. Provide examples. Name the functions of a subordinating clause in a sentence. Provide examples. Explain. (i.e., underline the clause and name its function). 1. - A sentence is “the largest unit of grammar, at the head of a hierarchy of grammatical units” (Leech, 2006, p.104); hence above clauses and phrases. Moreover, this unit is “made up of one or more clauses” (Leech & Svartvik, 1985, p. 281). According to Leech (2006, p. 104), sentences may be divided into: Simple sentences –those with just one clause-

i.e. He heard an explosion.
Complex or Compound sentences – those which contain more than one clause. i.e. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. 2. - A phrase is “a group of words without a subject and a verb” (Davenport, 2004, p.18) acting as a single part of speech. A phrase is lower on the grammatical hierarchy than a clause. Then, Leech (2006) defines phrase as:

“a grammatical unit which may consist of one or more than one word and which is one of the classes of constituent into which simple sentences can be divided. The main types of a phrase are NP, VP,...

References: Davenport, P. (2004). Rex barks. Diagramming sentences made easy. New York: The Paper Tiger.
DeCapua, A. (2008). Grammar for Teachers. A guide to American English for native and non-native speakers. New Rochelle, NY: Springer
Greenbaum, S & Quirk, R. (1992) A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. London, U.K.: Longman.
Leech, G. (2006). A Glossary of English grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Leech, G. & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Communicative Grammar of English. London, U.K.: Longman.
Payne, T. E. (2010). Understanding english grammar, a linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Roberts, P. (1954). Understanding Grammar. New York, USA. Harper & Row.Trask, R. L., & Stockwell, P. (2007). Language and linguistics: The key concepts. New York, NY: Routledge* some examples were extracted from
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