Gender Reassignment: Cultural and Medical
In the three articles, the authors has hinted many similarities in intersex surgeries and female genital cutting. Furthermore, the authors implied that the intersex surgeries are medically unnecessary, but needed to be acceptable into “societal expectation by prevent psychological trauma, embarrassment, and emotional discomfort” from both patient and their parents (Ehrenreich, 2005, p.13). On the other hands, anti-FGC activists, and Western feminism has attacked the “African genital cutting as primitive, irrational, harmful, and deserving of condemnation.” This type of practice is equally problematic to intersex surgery which occurs in own country (Ehrenreich, 2005, p.13). Regarding to both cases, the articles suggested that performing intersex surgery procedures in the West, much likely to female genital cutting in African, have cultural artifacts. Thus, people might conclude that Americans foster a double standard based on cultural misconceptions and prejudices. According to Ehrenreich (2005), she has argued that intersex surgery in the West, like female circumcision in Africa, is a cultural practice that ordains patriarchal gender norms (p.22). If the anti-FGC activists could argue there are significant different between intersex surgery and female circumcision practices, then they have forgotten both practices have come from the same procedure: cutting, repairing or correcting the individual’s genital part to look “normal” as they used to see in their own society norm concept. For example, “thousands of intersex genital surgeries are performed on children and infants” (Ehrenreich, 2005, p.13) compare with many African young children have undergone female circumcision in Africa, people might see that both practice performances are the same, however, both has different outcomes. Most people in the West have believed in gender norm (Ehrenreich, 2005, p.21). A strong evidence to support that statement came from two...
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