There are “Fouls” and there are “Violations”
Fouls are caused by physical contact (holding, pushing), or actions (acting out like you are going to hit another player but you don’t) or even extreme abusive yelling or cussing (technical foul). Violations are actions by players that break a basketball rule – such as traveling, stepping on the line, and back court.
Prior to each “Foul” call the referee will first perform this signal… Stop the Clock! Prior to each “Violation” the Ref will first perform this signal… “Fouls”
Fouls are the act of making “illegal” physical contact with a player while the ball is in play. Fouls can occur from a defender bumping into a player dribbling the ball, reaching in and/or slapping the offensive player dribbling the ball, moving their body (bumping) into an offensive player, bumping or hitting a player taking a shot, elbowing a player. Players cannot elbow, grab / hold, punch, push, scratch at, or trip a player on the other team – these are all fouls. Offensive fouls can occur when the player dribbling the ball runs into a defender who has established position. Technical fouls can be called on players or coaches who are using unsportsmanlike conduct, too many players on the court, etc. Incidental Contact
Incidental contact occurs when a defender makes contact with an offensive player and the contact is deemed insignificant (the referees do not call a foul). Incidental contact can also occur when two players are going for the ball at the same time, and they run into each other (it’s very hard to determine which player ran into who first?). This type of contact is appropriate at times, but when allowed to continue for longer than it should, it can cause problems in the game (especially if left unchecked for too long). Types of Personal Fouls:
Holding Foul – A “Holding Foul” occurs when a defender holds, grabs, or pulls an offensive player (it doesn’t matter if the offensive player has possession of the ball or not).
Holding Foul Signal
Pushing Foul – A “Pushing Foul” occurs when a defender pushes an offensive player or bumps into the body of an offensive player.
Pushing Foul Signal
Illegal Use of Hands Foul – This is a foul called when a defender slaps, hacks, or smacks an offensive player with the ball.
IIIegal Use of Hands Signal
Blocking Foul – A “Blocking Foul” occurs when a defender uses their body and makes contact with an offensive player with the ball (could be in the form of running into the player, or setting an illegal screen, etc).
Blocking Foul Signal
Charging Foul (Charge) / Player Control Foul – A “Charging Foul” occurs when an offensive player runs into (or over) a defensive player who already has position (the defender must first establish position). Other types of player control fouls are when a dribbler uses an elbow and hits a defender, or excessive physical contact by an offensive post player trying to gain position. See “team fouls” below for more information on how an offensive foul does (or does not) affect team foul totals when in a “1 in 1″ situation (when a team reaches 7 fouls).
Player Control Foul Signal
Flagrant Foul – A foul that is made with “extreme” contact (violent in nature), and appears to be in an “intentional” manner to hurt or injure a player (bumping, elbowing, kicking, pushing, etc). Ex: An offensive player is in the air (attempting a lay-up) and the defender pulls the players’ shirt (putting the offensive player in harms way). Note: At present time there is no specified signal for the Flagrant Foul (the ref uses the intentional foul call signal, then just verbally indicates that the foul was flagrant). Intentional Foul – A type of foul that is designed to “stop the clock.” Used mainly at the end of the game with the coach instructing players to “foul” in order to stop the clock – for a chance to gain possession of the ball. Remember, a coach should not yell out the word “foul” or the...
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