Food Consumption Patterns

Topics: Food, Gross domestic product, Food security Pages: 35 (11952 words) Published: March 17, 2011
Appetite 55 (2010) 597–608

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage:

Research report

Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources P.W. Gerbens-Leenes a,*, S. Nonhebel b, M.S. Krol a
a b

Faculty of Engineering Technology, Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, The Netherlands Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (IVEM), University of Groningen, Nijenborg 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands



Article history: Received 11 March 2010 Received in revised form 1 September 2010 Accepted 14 September 2010 Keywords: Dietary change Economic development Natural resource use Nutrition transition Food consumption patterns

This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia. ß 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction At present, the world faces enormous challenges over food security (Millenium Ecosystems Assesment, 2005), which threaten the availability and quality of natural resources such as arable lands, freshwater and natural areas (FAO, 2003; Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008; WWF, 2007). The potential impacts of climate change are likely to worsen this situation (Fischer, Van Velthuizen, Shah, & Nachtergaele, 2002). Globally, food consumption gives rise to the greatest use of land (FAO, 2003; Penning de Vries et al., 1995) and freshwater (Falkenmark, 1989; FAO, 2003; Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008; Rockstrom, 1999; Rosegrant & Ringler, 1998) and is an important cause of greenhouse gas emissions (Carlsson¨ Kanyama, Engstrom, & Kok, 2005; Kramer, 2000). The current growth in the world population requires the production of more food. As well as population growth, most areas of the world have shown economic development that resulted in increased Abbreviations: A%, average supply of nutritional energy from animal sources (%); E%, energy percentage; FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; GDP, gross domestic product; GE, grain equivalents; G-K dollars, 1990 International Geary-Khamis dollars; PPP, purchasing power parity; WHO, World Health Organization. * Corresponding author. E-mail address: (P.W. Gerbens-Leenes). 0195-6663/$ – see front matter ß 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.09.013

purchasing power, causing not only a demand for more food (Latham, 2000) but also for different food. Studies on human nutrition have shown that worldwide a nutrition transition is taking place, in which people shift...

References: Boom-Binkhorst van der, F. H., Winkelman, M. L. J., Lith van, A., von Lossonczy von Losoncz, T. O., Amesz, M. F., & Schure-Remijn, P. J. M. (1997). Voedingsmiddelen en dranken in het Nederlandse voedingspatroon [Food items and beverages in the Dutch food package]. In A. Stafleu, J. M. Veen, & W. H. Vredebregt-Lagas (Eds.), Mens en Voeding (pp. 233–234). People and foodBaarn, the Netherlands: Nijgh en van Ditmar. Braun von, J. (1988). Effects of technological change in agriculture on food consumption and nutrition. Rice in a West African Setting. World Development, 9, 1083– 1098. Braun von, J., & Paulino, L. (1990). Food in sub-Saharan Africa, Trends and policy challenges for the 1990s. Food Policy, 505–517. ¨ Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Engstrom, R., & Kok, R. (2005). Indirect and direct energy requirements of city households in Sweden. Options for reduction, lessons for modeling. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1–2), 221–235. Catsberg, C. M. E., & Kempen-van Dommelen, 1997. The knowledge of Foods. Intro, Baarn, the Netherland (in Dutch). Centraal bureau voor de statistiek (CBS), hoofdafdeling statistieken van inkomen en consumptie. (1994) [Central Bureau of statistics on income and consumption. (1994)]. Gebruikershandboek budgetonderzoek 1992 [User manual expenditure survey 1992]. Voorburg, the Netherlands: CBS. De Graaf, C. (2006). Effects of snacks on energy intake. An evolutionary perspective. Appetite, 47, 18–23. Duchin, F. (2005). Sustainable consumption of food. A framework for analyzing scenarios about changes in diets. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1–2), 99– 114. Engelenburg van, B. C. W., Rossum van, T. F. M., Blok, K., & Vringer, K. (1994). Calculating the energy requirements of household purchases, a practical step by step method. Energy Policy, 22, 648–656. Falkenmark, M. (1989). Water scarcity and food production. In D. Pimentel & C. W. Hall (Eds.), Food and natural resources (pp. 164–191). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. FAO. (2003). In J. Bruinsma (Ed.), World Agriculture. Towards 2015/2030. An FAO Perspective. London: Earthscan Publications. FAO. (2010). Food Balance Sheets. FAO. (2008). The state of food and agriculture 2008. Biofuels. Prospects, risks and opportunities. Rome. Fernandes, E. C. M., & Nair, P. K. R. (1986). An evaluation of the structure and function of tropical homegardens. Agricultural systems, 21, 279–310. Fischer, G., Van Velthuizen, H., Shah, M., & Nachtergaele, F. O., 2002. Global Agroecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Fogel, R. W., & Helmchen, L. A. (2002). Economic and technological development and their relationships to body size and productivity. In B. Caballero and B. M. Popkin (Eds.), The nutrition transition, diet and disease in the developing world (pp. 9–24). Food Science and Technology International Series. London, San Diego: Academic Press. Gerbens-Leenes, P. W. (2006). Natural resource use for food. Land, water and energy in production and consumption systems. Thesis University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Gerbens-Leenes, P. W., & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2007). The water footprint of the Netherlands. Analysis of international impacts and options for change. CE&M research report 2007R-008/WEM-005. ISSN 1568-4652. Enschede, the Netherlands: University of Twente. Gerbens-Leenes, P. W., & Nonhebel, S. (2002). Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food. Ecological Economics, 42, 185–199. Gerbens-Leenes, P. W., & Nonhebel, S. (2005). Food and land use. The influence of consumption patterns on the use of agricultural resources. Appetite, 45, 21–31. Grigg, D. (1995). The nutrition transition in Western Europe. Journal of Historical Geography, 22(1), 247–261. Hertwich, E. G. (2005). Consumption and industrial ecology. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1–2), 1–6. Hoekstra, A. Y., & Chapagain, A. K. (2007). Water footprints of nations. Water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water Resource Management, 21, 35–48. Hoekstra, A. Y., & Chapagain, A. K. (2008). Globalization of water. Sharing the planet’s freshwater resources. London: Blackwell Publishing, London. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2010). World Economic Database, September 2004. Ivens, W. P. M. F. , Dankert, G., Eng van der, P. J., Faber, D. C., van Keulen, H., Klaver, W., et al. (1992). World food production. Heerlen, the Netherlands: Open universiteit. Jobse-van Putten, J. (1995). Eenvoudig Maar Voedzaam [Simple but nutritious]. Nijmegen/Amsterdam, the Netherlands: SUN/P.J. Meertens-Instituut. ˚ll. ¨ngder, sammansa ¨ttning och mo ¨jligheter att Karlsson, R. (2001). Svinn i storhusha ma minska [Losses in food service institutions. Options for reductions]. Master’s Thesis. Stockholm, Sweden: Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University. Kok, R., Biesiot, W., & Wilting, H. C. (1993). Energie-intensiteiten van voedingsmiddelen [Energy intensities of food items]. IVEM-report 59. Groningen, the Netherlands: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (IVEM). Kramer, K. J. (2000). Food matters. Thesis University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Kramer, K. J., & Moll, H. C. (1995). Energie voedt, nadere analyses van het indirecte energieverbruik van voedingsmiddelen [Energy feeds, analysis of indirect energy use of food items]. IVEM-report 77. Groningen, the Netherlands: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (IVEM).
P.W. Gerbens-Leenes et al. / Appetite 55 (2010) 597–608 World Bank. (2005). East Asia’s Dollar Influx-Signal for Change. Special focus. Gender Equality in East Asia. WWF, 2007. Allocating scarce water. A WWF primer on water allocation, water rights and watr markets. WWF-UK, Godalming, UK.
Appendix A Overview of the 57 countries for which this study performed the cross-sectional analysis. ˆ Africa: Algeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’ Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, and South Africa Asia: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam Eastern Europe: Poland Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela Middle East: Israel, and Syria OECD: Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States Additional, small countries: The United Arab Emirates, Estonia, Slovenia. Appendix B Overview of countries and national food surveys used in this study. The 18 food surveys that provide data on fat E% are marked with an asterisk *. Argentina Britos, S., & Scacchia, S. (1998). Disponibilidad y consumo de ´n alimentos en Argentina. Escuela de Nutricio [Food availability and consumption in Argentina. School of Nutrition]. Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires [National University of Buenos Aires]. Bangladesh* Jahan, & Hossein. (1998). Malnutrition in Bangladesh: Bangladesh National Nutrition Survey, 1995–96. Bangladesh: Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, Dhaka University. Brazil ´rito de Consumo Galeazzi, M. A. M., & Falchoni Jr., P. (1998). Inque ´rio Alimentar da Area Metropolitana de Brası´la-Relato [Nutrition survey ´ ´ ´ in the area of Brasilia-Relatorio]. Brasılia: Tecnico-Secretaria de Saude ´ de Brasılia. Cambodja National Institute of Statistics (NIS/MOP). (1996). SocioEconomic Survey of Cambodja. Data from the Multi-Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of the Socio-Economic Survey of Cambodja (SESC) sponsored by the Asian Development Bank in collaboration with the UNICEF/UNDP/CARERE and ILO. Cambodja: Royal Government of Cambodja. China* Ge, K., Zhai, F., & Yan, H. (1996). Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene (INFH) 1985. Summary Report of the 2nd National Nutrition Survey in 1982. Beijing, China: Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene. Ge, K., Zhai, F., & Yan, H. (1996). The dietary and nutritional status of Chinese population. 3rd National Nutrition Survey, 1992. Beijing, China: People’s Med. Pub. House. Colombia Ministerio de Agricultura DANE-DRI-PAN. (1984). Encuesta ´n, ´n Nacional de Alimentatio Nutricio y Vivienda DANE-PAN-DRI 1981 [Ministry of Agriculture DANE-DRI-PAN 1984. National Feeding, ´ Nutrition and Housing Survey DANE-PAN-DRI 1981]. Bogota: ´ ´ Franza Pardo T-Bogota (Mimeografo).
Costa Rica Ministerio de Salud. (1996). Ministerio de Salud 1996. Encuesta ´n. Nacional de Nutricio Fasciculo No 1: Consumo Aparente [Ministry of Health 1996. National Nutrition Survey. Fascicle No 1: Apparent ´ Consumption]. San Jose, Costa Rica. Egypt* Hassanyn, A. S. (2000). Food Consumption Pattern and Nutrients Intake Among Different Population Groups in Egypt. Final Report (Part 1). Egypt: Nutrition Institute, WHO/EMRO. El Salvador ´ ´ ˘ Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), Ministerio de Salud ´ ´ Publica y Asistencia Social (MSPAS), & Instituto de Nutricion de ´ ´ Centro America y Panama (INCAP) [Salvadoran Demographic Association, Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance, & Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP)]. ´n ´n (1990). Evaluacio de la Situacio Alimentaria Nutricional en El Salvador [Evaluation of the nutritional situation in El Salvador]. El Salvador: ESA NES-88. Equador ´stico de la situacio alimentaria y ´n Freire, W. (1988). Diagno ´n ˜os nutricional y de salud de la poblacio ecuatoriana menor de cinco an – DANS -1986 [Diagnosis of the alimentary, nutritional and health state of the Ecuadorian population less than five years – DANS -1986]. Quito, Equador: CONADE, MSP. Iran* Djazayery, A., & Samimi, B. (1996). (Surveys for 1983 and 1992) Food consumption and energy intake patterns in the rural and urban areas of Iran, 1983–1992. Agricultural Economics and Development, 4, 218–248. Jamaica Simeon, D. T., & Patterson, A. W. (1994). Energy and protein accessibility at the household level in Jamaica: Results from a national survey 1989. Jamaica: CFNI. Jordan* Department of Statistics (DOS). (1997). Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Amman, Jordan. Madagaskar ´tat de l’inse ´curite alimentaire 2001 dans le monde ´ FAO. (2004). L’e [The state of food insecurity in the world]. Rome, Italy: Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture [Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations], http:// Mali* FAO. (2005). Profiles nutritionnels par pays [Nutritional profiles per country]. Mali: Departement Economique et Social, Alimentation et nutrition [Department of Economic and social affairs, food and nutrition]. Mexico* ´n INNSZ. (1990). Encuesta Nacional de Alimentacio en el Medio Rural ENAL 1989 [National Feeding Survey in Rural Areas ENAL 1989]. ´ Mexico: INCMNSZ. Avila, A., Shamah, T., & Chavez, A. (1997). Enquestas de ´n ´n Alimentacio y Nutricio en el Medio Rural, 1996. Resultados por entidad [Feeding and Nutrition Surveys in Rural Areas, 1996. Results by organization]. INNSZ, DEDESOL, DIF, SSA, Golernos de los Estados [Governments of the States]. Mexico: IMSS, INI, Unicef. The Netherlands* Voedingscentrum [Food Center], & TNO. (1998). Zo eet Nederland 1998 [This is how the Netherlands eats 1998]. Den Haag, the Netherlands: Voedingscentrum [Food Center]. Panama Ministerio de Salud. (1992). Ministerio de Salud 1992. Encuesta ´ Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos. Panama: Departamento de ´ ´ ´ Nutricion y Dietetica Panama [Ministry of Health 1992. National ´ Food Consumption Survey. Panama: Dietetic and Nutrition Depart´ ment Panama].
P.W. Gerbens-Leenes et al. / Appetite 55 (2010) 597–608
´ ´ ´ Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama (INCAP), Oficina de Investigaciones Internationales de Salud, & Ministerio ´ de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) [Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), International Health Research Office, & Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance ´n (MSPAS)]. (2000). Evaluacio nutricional de El Salvador 1969 [Nutritional Assessment of El Salvador 1969]. Peru ´n ´ Amat, C., & Curonisy, P. (1981). La alimentacio en el Peru ´ ´ [Feeding in Peru]. Lima, Peru: Centro de Investigacion [Research Center University of the Pacific]. Philippines* Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST) of the Philippines. (2000). National Survey of 1993: Final Results. Sri Lanka* Department of Census and Statistics. (1993). Household Income and Expenditure Survey 1990/91, Final Report. Department of Census and Statistics. Sri Lanka: Ministry of Policy Planning and Implementation. Turkey* Hundd, & Moh. (1997). Food consumption survey in 7 provinces, Project Report. Ankara, Turkey: Hacettepe University, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Ministry of Health.
United States* United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service. (2005). Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 1.0. 7637. Venezuela* ´ Luna Bazo, P., & Bracho, M. (1987). Encuesta Nacional de ´n. Nutricio Area Socio Alimentaria ‘‘Encuesta de Consumo’’. Mimeografiado [National Nutrition Survey. Socio Alimentary Field ‘‘Consumption Survey’’. Mimeografiado]. Caracas, Venezuela: Instituto ´ ´ Nacional de Nutricion, Direccion Technica [National Nutrition Institute, Technical Direction]. Vietnam* Tu Giay, & Chu Quoc Lap. (1990). Final report on the subject 64D.01.01 of the National Research Programme National General Survey 1989. Hanoi, Vietnam: The Governmental Science and Technology Committee, NIN. National Institute of Nutrition (NIN). (1995). Sentinel food and nutrition surveillance system data. Hanoi, Vietnam: NIN. Zimbabwe Bursztijn, P. G. (1985). A diet survey in Zimbabwe. Human Nutr. Appl. Nutr. 39 (5), 376–388.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Patterns in Resource Consumption
  • food consumption Essay
  • Essay on Trends in Consumption Patterns
  • Food Essay
  • Foods Essay
  • Trends in Consumption Patterns Essay
  • Changing Consumption Patterns Essay
  • Tobacco Consumption Patterns Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free