Chapter 2 Video Case Study-Evolution of Management
There were three approaches to management beginning in the late 1800s. The scientific method was developed and introduced by Fredrick Taylor, the administrative principles were views published by Henri Fayol, and the bureaucratic organization was an idea developed by Max Weber. Taylor’s scientific method developed within the manufacturing industries and had the main objective to improve economic efficiency, especially in labor productivity. Fayol’s approach was to the managerial practices. He focused on training the management instead of focusing on individual worker efficiency. He set forth the four functions of: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Weber outlined the hierarchical structure for the management and workers to follow. The scientific approach was implemented by the management carefully selecting the most qualified worker for a certain job. In doing so, the worker’s compensation was now directly related to their production. Going along the same lines of efficiency, the administrative management principles were for teaching upper management first and then moving to improve the efficiency of workers (also called a “top down” approach). For these two approaches to work well together, there also needed to be a clear outline of where each position was in the hierarchy of authority. This is how Weber’s bureaucratic organization of three distinct management levels were utilized. While each concept was developed and implemented for the greater good and to create prosperity for everyone, they were not sustainable through the evolution of manufacturing. By applying a “science” to a skilled worker’s job, it became possible to deskill a job and eventually replace a human with a machine altogether. The administrative management principles created greedy managers that in turn created worker unhappiness. This only strengthened the labor unions in the mid-1900s. This was the...
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