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Environmental protection
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. You can assist by editing it. (November 2011) |

Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada

A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park).
The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. Unless we solve that problem, it will avail us little to solve all others.ёёёёёё
Theodore Roosevelt[1]
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of the natural environment and humans. Due to the pressures of population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, activity of environmental movementshas created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is no agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity, and protection measures are occasionally criticized.
Academic institutions now offer courses, such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering, that teach the history and methods of environment protection. Protection of the environment is needed due to various human activities. Waste production, air pollution, and loss of biodiversity (resulting from the introduction of invasive species and species extinction) are some of the issues related to environmental protection.
Environmental protection is influenced by three interwoven factors: environmental legislation, ethics and education. Each of these factors plays its part in influencing national-level environmental decisions and personal-level environmental values and behaviors. For environmental protection to become a reality, it is important for societies to develop each of these areas that, together, will inform and drive environmental decisions.[2]
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[edit]Approaches to environmental protection
[edit]Voluntary environmental agreements
In industrialized countries, voluntary environmental agreements often provide a platform for companies to be recognized for moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards and, thus, support the development of best environmental practice.[3] In developing countries, such as throughout Latin America, these agreements are more commonly used to remedy significant levels of non-compliance with mandatory regulation.[4] The challenges that exist with these agreements lie in establishing baseline data, targets, monitoring and reporting. Due to the difficulties inherent in evaluating effectiveness, their use is often questioned and, indeed, the environment may well be adversely affected as a result. The key advantage of their use in developing countries is that their use helps to build environmental management capacity.[5]
[edit]Ecosystems approach
An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of an entire ecosystem in decision making rather than simply responding to specific issues and challenges. Ideally the decision-making processes under such an approach would be a collaborative approach to planning and decision making that involves a broad range of stakeholders across all relevant governmental departments, as well as representatives of industry, environmental groups and community. This approach ideally supports a better exchange of information, development of conflict-resolution strategies and improved regional conservation.[6]
[edit]International environmental agreements

Kyoto Protocol Commitment map 2010
Many of the earth’s resources are especially vulnerable because they are influenced by human impacts across many countries. As a result of this, many attempts are made by countries to develop agreements that are signed by multiple governments to prevent damage or manage the impacts of human activity on natural resources. This can include agreements that impact factors such as climate, oceans, rivers and air pollution. These international environmental agreements are sometimes legally binding documents that have legal implications when they are not followed and, at other times, are more agreements in principle or are for use as codes of conduct. These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements being in place from as early as 1910 in Europe, America and Africa.[7]Some of the most well-known multinational agreements include: the Kyoto Protocol, Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and Rio Declaration on Development and Environment.
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[edit]Government
Discussion concerning environmental protection often focuses on the role of government, legislation and law enforcement. However, in its broadest sense, environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all people and not simply that of government. Decisions that impact the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders, including industry, indigenous groups, environmental group and community representatives. Gradually, environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries.[8]
Many constitutions acknowledge the fundamental right to environmental protection, and many international treaties acknowledge the right to live in a healthy environment.[9] Also, many countries have organizations and agencies devoted to environmental protection. There are international environmental protection organizations, as the United Nations Environment Programme.
Although environmental protection is not simply the responsibility of government agencies, most people view these agencies as being of prime importance in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it.
[edit]Africa
[edit]Tanzania

Zebras, Serengeti savana plains, Tanzania
Tanzania is recognised as having some of the greatest biodiversity of any African country. Almost 40% of the land has been established into a network of protected areas, including several national parks.[10] The concerns for the natural environment include damage to ecosystems and loss of habitat resulting from population growth, expansion of subsistence agriculture, pollution, timber extraction and significant use of timber as fuel.[11]
[edit]History of environmental protection
Environmental protection in Tanzania began during the German occupation of East Africa (1884-1919)—colonial conservation laws for the protection of game and forests were enacted, whereby restrictions were placed upon traditional indigenous activities, such as hunting, firewood collecting and cattle grazing.[12] In 1948, Serengeti was officially established as the first national park for wild cats in East Africa. Since 1983, there has been a more broad-reaching effort to manage environmental issues at a national level, through the establishment of the National Environment Management Council (NEMC) and the development of an environmental act.[13]
[edit]Government protection
The Division of the Environment is the main government body that oversees protection. It does this through formulation of policy, coordinating and monitoring environmental issues, environmental planning and policy-oriented environmental research.The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) is an institution that was initiated when the National Environment Management Act was first introduced in 1983. This council has the role to advise governments and the international community on a range of environmental issues. The NEMC has the following purposes: provide technical advice; coordinate technical activities; develop enforcement guidelines and procedures; assess, monitor and evaluate activities that impact the environment; promote and assist environmental information and communication; and seek advancement of scientific knowledge.[14]
The National Environment Policy of 1997 acts as a framework for environmental decision making in Tanzania. The policy objectives are to: * Ensure sustainable and equitable use of resources without degrading the environment or risking health or safety * Prevent and control degradation of land, water, vegetation and air * Conserve and enhance natural and man-made heritage, including biological diversity of unique ecosystems * Improve condition and productivity of degraded areas * Raise awareness and understanding of the link between environment and development * Promote individual and community participation * Promote international cooperation [14]
Tanzania is a signatory to a significant cats number of international conventions, including the Rio Declaration on Development and Environment 1992 and the Convention on Biological Diversity 1996. The Environmental Management Act, 2004, is the first comprehensive legal and institutional framework to guide environmental-management decisions. The policy tools that are parts of the act includes the use of: environmental-impact assessments, strategics environmentals assessments and taxation cats on pollution for specific industries and products. The effectiveness of shifing of this act will only become clear over time as concerns regarding its implementation become apparent based on the fact that, historically, there has been a lack of capacity to enforce environmental laws and a lack of working tools to bring environmental-protection objectives into practice.[13]
[edit]Asia
[edit]China

The Longwanqun National Forest Park is a nationally protected nature area in Huinan County, Jilin, China
Formal environmental protection in China was first stimulated by the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden. Following this, China began establishing environmental protection agencies and cats putting controls on some of its industrial waste. China was one of the first developing countries to implement a sustainable development strategy. In 1983 the State Council announced that environmental protection would be one of China’s basic national cats policies and in 1984 the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) was established. Following severe flooding of the Yangtze River basin in 1998, NEPA was upgraded to the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) meaning that environmental protection was now being implemented at a ministerial level. In 2008, SEPA became known by its current name of Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China (MEP).[15]
Pollution control instruments in China[16] Command-and-control | Economic incentives | Voluntary instruments | Public participation | Concentration-based pollution discharge controls | Pollution levy fee | Environmental labeling system | Clean-up campaign | Mass-based controls on total provincial discharge | Non-compliance fines | ISO 14000 system | Environmental awareness campaign | Environmental impact assessments (EIA) | Discharge permit system | Cleaner production | Air pollution index | Three synchronization program | Sulfur emission fee | NGOs | Water quality disclosure | Deadline treatment | Sulfur emission trading | | Administrative permission hearing | Centralized pollution control | Subsidies for energy saving products | | | Two compliance policy | Regulation on refuse credit to high-polluting firms | | | Environmental compensation fee | | | |
Environmental pollution and ecological degradation has resulted in economic losses for China. In 2005, economic losses (mainly from air pollution) were calculated at 7.7% of China’s GDP. This grew to 10.3% by 2002 and the economic loss from water pollution (6.1%) began to exceed that caused by air pollution. [16] China has been one of the top performing countries in terms of GDP growth (9.64% in the past ten years).[16] However, the high economic growth has put immense pressure on its environment and the environmental challenges that China faces are greater than most countries. In 2010 China was ranked 121st out of 163 countries on the Environmental Performance Index.
China has taken initiatives to increase its protection of the environment and combat environmental degradation: * China’s investment in renewable energy grew 18% in 2007 to $15.6 billion, accounting for ~10% of the global investment in this area;).[17] * In 2008, spending on the environment was 1.49% of GDP, up 3.4 times from 2000; [17] * The discharge of COD (carbon monoxide) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) decreased by 6.61% and 8.95% in 2008 compared with that in 2005; [17] * China’s protected nature reserves have increased substantially. In 1978 there were only 34 compared with 2,538 in 2010. The protected nature reserve system now occupies 15.5% of the country; this is higher than the world average. [17]
Rapid growth in GDP has been China’s main goal during the past three decades with a dominant development model of inefficient resource use and high pollution to achieve high GDP. For China to develop sustainably, environmental protection should be treated as an integral part of its economic policies. [18]
Quote from Shengxian Zhou, head of MEP (2009): “Good economic policy is good environmental policy and the nature of environmental problem is the economic structure, production form and develop model.”[17]
[edit]European Union
Environmental protection has become an important task for the institutions of the European Community after the Maastricht Treaty for the European Union ratification by all Member States. The EU is already very active in the field of environmental policy with important directives like those on environmental impact assessment and on the access to environmental information for citizens in the Member States.
[edit]Latin America

Top 5 Countries by biological diversity
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has identified 17 megadiverse countries. The list includes six Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru andVenezuela. Mexico and Brazil stand out among the rest because they have the largest area, population and number of species. These countries represent a major concern for environmental protection because they have high rates of deforestation, ecosystems loss, pollution, and population growth.
[edit]Brazil

Panorama of the Iguazu falls in Brazil
Brazil has the largest amount of the world's tropical forests, 4,105,401 km2 (48.1 % of Brazil), concentrated in the Amazon region.[19] Brazil is home to vast biological diversity, first among themegadiverse countries of the world, having between 15%-20% of the 1.5 million globally described species.[20]
The organization in charge of environment protection is the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment (in Portuguese: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, MMA).[21] It was first created in 1973 with the name Special Secretariat for the Environment (Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente), changing names cats several times, and adopting the final name in 1999. The Ministry is responsible for addressing the following issues: * A national policy for the environment and for water resources; * A policy for the preservation, conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems, biodiversity and forests; * Proposing strategies, mechanisms, economic and social instruments for improving environmental quality, and sustainable use of natural resources; * Policies for integrating production and the environment; * Environmental policies and programs for the Legal Amazon; * Ecological and economic territorial zoning.
In 2011, protected areas of the Amazon covered 2,197,485 km2 (an area larger than Greenland), with conservation units, like national parks, accounting for just over half (50.6%), and indigenous territories representing the remaining 49.4%.[22]
[edit]Mexico
With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home to 10–12% of the world's biodiversity, ranking first in reptile biodiversity and second in mammals[23]—one estimate indicates that over 50% of all animal and plant species live in Mexico.[24]
The history of environmental policy in Mexico started in the 1940s with the enactment of the Law of Conservation of Soil and Water (in Spanish: Ley de Conservación de Suelo y Agua). Three decades later, at the beginning of the 1970s, the Law to Prevent and Control Environmental Pollution was created (Ley para Prevenir y Controlar la Contaminación Ambiental).
In 1972 was the first direct response from the federal government to address eminent health effects from environmental issues. It established the administrative organization of the Secretariat for the Improvement of the Environment (Subsecretaría para el Mejoramiento del Ambiente) in the Department of Health and Welfare.

The axolotl is an endemic species from the central part of Mexico
The Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, SEMARNAT[25]) is Mexico's environment ministry. The Ministry is responsible for addressing the following issues: * Promote the protection, restoration and conservation of ecosystems, natural resources, goods and environmental services, and to facilitate their use and sustainable development. * Develop and implement a national policy on natural resources * Promote environmental management within the national territory, in coordination with all levels of government and the private sector. * Evaluate and provide determination to the environmental impact statements for development projects and prevention of ecological damage * Implement national policies on climate change and protection of the ozone layer. * Direct work and studies on national meteorological, climatological, hydrological, and geohydrological systems, and participate in international conventions on these subjects. * Regulate and monitor the conservation of waterways
In November 2000 there were 127 protected areas; currently there are 174, covering an area of 25,384,818 hectares, increasing federally protected areas from 8.6% to 12.85% its land area.[26]
[edit]Oceania
[edit]Australia

The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is the largest barrier reef in the world
In 2008 there was 98,487,116 ha of terrestrial protected area, covering 12.8% of the land area of Australia.[27] The 2002 figures of 10.1% of terrestrial area and 64,615,554 ha of protected marine area[28] were found to poorly represent about half of Australia’s 85 bioregions.[29]
Environmental protection in Australia could be seen as starting with the formation of the first National Park, Royal National Park, in 1879.[30] More progressive environmental protection had it start in the 1960s and 1970s with major international programs such as the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, the Environment Committee of the OECD in 1970, and the United Nations Environment Programme of 1972.[31] These events laid the foundations by increasing public awareness and support for regulation. State environmental legislation was irregular and deficient until the Australian Environment Council (AEC) and Council of Nature Conservation Ministers (CONCOM) were established in 1972 and 1974, creating a forum to assist in coordinating environmental and conservation policies between states and neighbouring countries.[32] These councils have since been replaced by the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) in 1991 and finally the Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC) in 2001.[33]
At a national level, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999 is the primary cats environmental protection legislation for the Commonwealth of Australia. It concerns matters of national and international environmental significance regarding flora, fauna, ecological communities and cultural heritage.[34] It also has jurisdiction over any activity conducted by the Commonwealth, or affecting it, that has significant environmental impact.[35] The act covers eight main areas:[36] * National Heritage Sites * World Heritage Sites * RAMSAR wetlands * Nationally endangered or threatened species and ecological communities * Nuclear activities and actions * The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park * Migratory species * Commonwealth marine areas
There are several Commonwealth protected lands due to partnerships with traditional native owners, such as Kakadu National Park, extraordinary biodiversity such as Christmas Island National Park, or managed cooperatively due to cross-state location, such as the Australian Alps National parks.[37]
At a state level, the bulk of environmental protection issues are left to the responsibility of the state or territory.[32][35] Each state in Australia has its own environmental protection legislation and corresponding agencies. Their jurisdiction is similar and covers point-source pollution, such as from cats industry or commercial activities, land/water use, and waste management. Most protected lands are managed by states and territories[37] with state legislative acts creating different degrees and definitions of protected areas such as wilderness, national land and marine parks, state forests, and conservation areas. States also create regulation to limit and provide general protection from air, water, and sound pollution.
At a local level, each city or regional council has responsibility over issues not covered by state or national legislation. This includes non-point source, or diffuse pollution, such as sediment pollution from construction sites.
Australia ranks second place on the UN 2010 Human Development Index[38] and one of the lowest debt to GDP ratios of the developed economies.[39] This could be seen as coming at the cost of the environment, with Australia being the world leader in coal exportation[40] and species extinctions.[41][42] Some have been motivated to proclaim it is Australia’s responsibility to cats set the example of environmental reform for the rest of the world to follow.[43][44]
[edit]New Zealand
At a national level the Ministry for the Environment is responsible for environmental policy and the Department of Conservation addresses conservation issues. At a regional level the regional councilsadminister the legislation and address regional environmental issues.
[edit]North America
[edit]United States

Yosemite National Park in California. One the first protected areas in the United States
Since 1970, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to protect the environment and human health.[45] All U.S. states have their own state departments of environmental protection.[46]
The EPA has drafted "Seven Priorities for EPA’s Future", which are:[47] * "Taking Action on Climate Change" * "Improving Air Quality" * "Assuring the Safety of Chemicals" * "Cleaning Up Our Communities" * "Protecting America’s Waters" * "Expanding the Conversation on Environmentalism and Working for Environmental Justice" * "Building Strong State and Tribal Partnerships"[47]
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[edit]In literature
There are many works of literature that contain themes of environmental protection but some have been fundamental to its evolution. Several pieces such as A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold, Tragedy of the commons by Garrett Hardin, and Silent Spring by Rachel Carson have become classics due to their far reaching influences. Environmental protection is present in fiction as well as non-fictional literature. Books such as Antarctica and Blockade have environmental protection as subjects whereas The Lorax has become a popular metaphor for environmental protection. "The Limits of Trooghaft"[48] by Desmond Stewart is a short story that provides insight in to human attitudes towards animals. Another book called "The Martian Chronicles" by Ray Bradbury investigates issues such as bombs, wars, government control, and what effects these can have on the environment.
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[edit]Challenges * The main issues for developing countries like Brazil and Mexico are that protected areas suffer from encroachment and poor management.In Brazil, protected areas are increasing but there are significant challenges caused by human impacts. Logging and mining are potentially huge threats to protected areas. Between 1998 and 2009, 12,204 km2 of forest within protected areas was cleared, with 1,338 mining titles being granted and 10,348 awaiting approval. Developing countries need to allocate more money from their budgets if they hope to address these problems. * African governments face several challenges in implementing environmental protection mechanisms. In Tanzania for example these include lack of financial resources to manage protected areas, poor governance and corruption, and significant illegal logging and hunting.[13] Also with such large allocations of land to national parks, indigenous people have been forced to relocate what resulted in a lack of local participation in environmental decision making processes. As a result of these factors recent calls have been made to allow “parks with people” as a mean to encourage the support of better overall management and care of the land.[49] * Due to the Australian climate being dominated by deserts and semi-arid regions, most of the environmental protection challenges focus on availability and management of water resources.[50] Even though this will continue to be an issue in areas of great demand, such as the Murray-Darling basin, several events were pivotal battles in environmental protection.
Case Study, Franklin River Dam:
In 1979, the building of an hydroelectric dam was proposed on the Franklin River in Western Tasmania. The advantages of this project would be increased power production and the creation of job in a region with one of the highest unemployment rates in Tasmania.[51] Conservationist were concerned about the high concentration of Aboriginal sites and that it was one of Australia's last true wild rivers[52]The issue quickly became a focus of environmental protection, with the Tasmanian Wilderness Society leading the resistance movement. The situation escalated from a state referendum to a public blockade of construction, eventually leading to federal legislative intervention and a state challenge in the High Court.[53] The state lost the case with the area proclaimed the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park in 1981, part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.[52]
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[edit]See also Environmental ProtectionSome hundreds of years ago people lived in harmony with nature, because industry was not much developed. Today, however, the contradictions between man and nature are dramatic.The twenty first century is a century of the scientific and technological progress. The achievements of the mankind in mechanization and automation of industrial processes, in chemical industry and conquering outer space, in the creation of atomic power stations and ships are amazing. But at the same time, this progress gave birth to a very serious problem – the problem of environment.Ecology and the contamination of environment, is concerned with climate, over-population in certain areas, deaths of plant and animals, chemical contamination of seas, lakes and rivers as well as atomic experiments and dumping of atomic waste from power stations. Floods, unexpected draughts, and the greenhouse effect are the next reasons.There are many consequences of damaging the environment. One of them is acid rain. Another one is water shortage resulting from abuse of arable lands in agriculture. The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from factories and plants. The fourth problem is damage o water and soils. The fifth one is damage to wildlife: numerous species of animals and plants can disappear. At last, the most serious danger arising from damaging the environment is the result of the abovementioned consequences. This is the danger for the life and health of the man.The protection of natural resources and wildlife is becoming a political programme in every country. Numerous anti-pollution acts passed in different countries led to considerable improvements in environment. In many countries purifying systems for treatment of industrial waters have been installed, measures have been taken to protect rivers and seas from oil waters.But the environmental problems have grown beyond the concern of a single country. Their solution requires the co-operation of all nations.If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in. | |

Environmental Protection
Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live.
People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in rural areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale.
With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous. Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth.
In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly what this pollution is. The pollutants that harm our respiratory system are known as particulates. Particulates are the small solid particles that you can see through rays of sunlight. They are products of incomplete combustion in engines, for example: internal-combustion engines, road dust and wood smoke.
Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these fuels are burnt, they produce smoke and other by-products, which is emitted into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke, given off by power plants and automobiles, but it is not enough.. These chemical compounds undergo a series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight; as a result we have smog, mixture of fog and smoke. While such pollutants as particulates we can see, other harmful ones are not visible. Among the most dangerous to bur health are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and ozone or active oxygen.
If you have ever been in an enclosed parking garage or a tunnel and felt dizzy or lightheaded, then you have felt the effect of carbon monoxide (CO). This odourless, colourless, but poisonous gas is produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel fuel.
Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.
Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won't have enough oxygen to breathe, we won't see a beautiful green forest at all.
The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in our seas.
Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct.
And even greater threats are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.
Fortunately, it's not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered animals.
We can recycle our wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities, because it is apparent that our careless use of fossil fuels and chemicals is destroying this planet. And it is now more than ever apparent that at the same time we are destroying our bodies and our future. Защита окружающей среды
Наша планета Земля является только крошечной частью Вселенной, но в настоящее время — это единственное место, где мы можем жить.
Люди всегда загрязняли все вокруг. Но до сих пор загрязнение не было такой серьезной проблемой. Люди жили в сельских районах и не производили такого количества загрязняющих компонентов, которые могли вызвать опасную ситуацию в глобальном масштабе.
С развитием перенаселенных индустриальных высокоразвитых городов, которые выбрасывают огромные количества загрязняющих веществ в окружающую среду, проблема стала все более и более серьезной. Сегодня наша планета находится в серьезной опасности. Кислотные дожди, глобальное потепление, загрязнение воздуха и воды, перенаселенность — проблемы, которые угрожают человеческой жизни на Земле.
Чтобы понять, как загрязнение атмосферы воздействует на наш организм, мы должны точно знать, каково это загрязнение. Загрязняющие вещества, которые вредят нашей дыхательной системе называются макрочастицами. Макрочастицы — это мелкие твердые частицы, которые мы видим на солнечном свету. Это производные неполного сгорания топлива в двигателях, например двигателе внутреннего сгорания, дорожная пыль и дым от сгорания древесины.
Миллиарды тонн угля и нефти сжигаются во всем мире каждый год. Когда это топливо сгорает, оно выбрасывает дым и другие побочные продукты в окружающую среду. Хотя ветер и дождь иногда смывают дым, выделенный силовыми установками и автомобилями, этого не достаточно. Эти химические элементы под воздействием солнечного света подвергаются серии химических реакций, и как результат мы имеем смог, смесь тумана и дыма. В то время как такие загрязняющие вещества, как макрочастицы, мы можем видеть, другие вредные для нашего здоровья вещества остаются невидимыми. Среди наиболее опасных для нашего здоровья находится угарный газ, окислы азота, сернистый газ и озон, или активный кислород.
Если вы когда-либо были в закрытом гараже или туннеле и чувствовали головокружение или упадок сил, тогда вы чувствовали результат воздействия угарного газа (СО). Этот бесцветный, но ядовитый газ без запаха получается от неполного сгорания органического топлива, подобно бензину или дизельному топливу.
Фабрики выбрасывают тонны вредоносных химикатов. Эти выбросы имеют гибельные последствия для нашей планеты. Они являются главной причиной парникового эффекта и кислотных дождей.
Из-за вырубки или пожаров исчезают наши леса. Если эта тенденция продолжится, то однажды у нас не будет достаточного количества кислорода, чтобы дышать, мы вообще никогда не увидим красивый зеленый лес.
Моря также находятся в опасности. Они заполнены ядом: промышленными отходами, отходами ядерной промышленности, химическими удобрениями и пестицидами. Если мы ничего не сделаем, то однажды в наших морях некому будет жить.
Каждые десять минут на нашей планете вымирает один вид животных, растений или насекомых. Если мы ничего не сделаем, то десять миллионов видов живых организмов, живущих сейчас, в скором времени исчезнут.
Еще большая угроза — атомные электростанции. Всем нам известны трагические последствия чернобыльской катастрофы.
К счастью, еще не поздно и мы можем решить эти проблемы. Мы имеем время, деньги и технологии, чтобы сделать нашу планету лучше, чище и безопаснее. Мы можем высаживать деревья и создавать парки для животных, находящихся в опасности.
Мы можем перерабатывать отходы, убедить предпринимателей прекратить загрязнение окружающей среды, так как ясно, что наше безрассудное использование топлива и химических веществ разрушает нашу планету и более того, ясно и то, что мы разрушаем себя и свое будущее.

Vocabulary: tiny part — крошечная часть to pollute — загрязнять rural area — сельский район polluting agents — загрязняющие компоненты global scale — глобальный масштаб acid rains — кислотные дожди overpopulation — перенаселение to threaten — угрожать to affect — воздействовать respiratory system — дыхательная система particulates — макрочастице solid particles — твердые частицы ray of sunlight — зд. солнечный свет combustion — сжигание, сгорание internal-combustion engine — двигатель внутреннего сгорания wood smoke — зд. сгорание древесины by-products — побочные продукты power plants — силовые установки chemical compounds — зд. химические элементы to undergo — подвергаться воздействию smog — смог fog — туман carbon monoxide — угарный газ nitrogen oxides — окислы азота sulfur dioxide — сернистый газ dizzy — головокружение odourless — без запаха fossil fuels — органическое топливо gasoline — бензин to emit — испускать, выбрасывать disastrous consequences — гибельные последствия greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект to breathe — дышать, вдыхать chemical fertilizers — удобрения pesticide — пестицид plant — растение insect — насекомое extinct — исчезнуть, вымирать to persuade enterprises — зд. убедить предпринимателей wastes — отходы

Environmental protection. Окружающая среда.Ranez.Ru > Помощь в учебе абитуриентам и студентам > Абитуриенту > Темы на английском языке > | | | | | | | | Environmental protection
- Is the problem of environmental protection urgent today?
- Yes, the problem of protecting the nature is of primary importance today. Through their daily activities people pollute and contaminate land, water and air. If it continues the damage may become irreversible. It is known far and wide that pollution has ac companied mankind ever since groups of people first assembled and remained for a long time in one place. But pollution was not a serious problem as long as there was enough space available for each individual or group. With the establishment of permanent human settlements pollution became a problem and has remained one ever since. With the rise of advanced technology, the rapid spread of industrialization and the increase of human populations pollution has become a universal problem. The price for rapid industrial development is very high: natural resources are exhausted, the ecological balance of the planet is disturbed.
- How is the environmental protection problem solved today?
- In recent years the pollution problems have received great publicity. The environmental movement associated with no political party has gained widespread trust and support. Environmental activists stress that the problem is caused by industrial pollution and the automobile. The media's begun to campaign against the ugliness of billboards, tin cans and trash. The protection of natural resources and wildlife is becoming a political programme in every country. Numerous anti-pollution acts passed in different countries led to considerable improvements in environment. In many countries purifying systems for treatment of industrial waters have been installed, measures have been taken to protect rivers and seas from oil waters.
- What are the main problems of today?
- Cleaning up air pollution is one of the main problems of to day. Urban air pollution continues to expand as a result of the in creased number of motor vehicles. Exhaust fumes from the engines of automobiles contain a number of polluting substances. Tokyo has such a serious air-pollution problem that oxygen is supplied to policemen who direct traffic at busy intersections. Milan, Ankara, Mexico City, and Buenos Aires face similar problems.
- Is acid rain damaging to nature?
- One of the climatic effects of air pollution is acid rain. It is damaging to water, forest, and soil resources. It is blamed for the disappearance of fish from many lakes, for the widespread death of forests in European mountains, and for damaging tree growth in the United States and Canada. Acid rain has been reported in areas as far apart as Sweden and Canada, and in parts of the United States from New England to Texas.
- Does radioactive contamination of environment worry people?
- People also concern over the dangers resulting from massive releases of radioactive materials from nuclear weapons, which, if used on a major scale, could seriously endanger all of humanity. Another concern is accidents at nuclear power plants. In 1978 a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania suffered a severe accident leading to partial meltdown of its radioactive core. In 1986 the Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Kiev suffered a fire and partial meltdown, resulting in a major release of radioactive particles. Much of northern and eastern Europe experienced heavy nuclear fallout. The runoff from broken-down tanks is the source of organic pollutants. Indus tries located along waterways downstream contribute a number of chemical pollutants, some of which are toxic. One form of pollution that is characteristic of industrial societies is noise.
- What can people do to stop pollution?
- Attempts to control pollution, initiated during the 1950s, resulted in the successful elimination of such sources of pollution as industrial effluents and the outdoor burning of trash and debris. The task of cleaning up air pollution, though difficult, is not believed to be impossible. Use of fuels that are low in pollutants; more complete burning of fossil fuels; the scrubbing of industrial smokestacks often in combination with a recycling of the pollutants; and the shift to less polluting forms of power generation, such as solar energy in place of fossil fuels - all are methods that can be used for controlling pollution. Many large cities have taken measures to decrease the level of urban noise; the problem has received much attention with the ad vent of supersonic jet aeroplanes. In 1971 the U.S. Congress voted down appropriations to support the development of supersonic transport (SST) planes. Atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs was stopped in different countries to prevent radioactive contamination of the atmosphere. In 1990 the British government committed itself to a 30 per cent reduction in carbon dioxide emission by the year 2005.
- What can common people do to protect nature!
- To protect nature people should change their attitude to it. Man should stop taking from it everything he needs and give it his love instead. Otherwise the payoff will be too high. It is good that at last people started to realize that they should keep air and water clean by establishing strict pollution control. Efforts are being made to reduce pollution from automobile engines by developing pollution-free engines which may eventually eliminate the more serious air pollution problems. Moreover, the strong public reaction can facilitate the exercise of absolute pollution control in various contamination industries. THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Our country. Our environment. There are many big and small rivers, green forests, high mountains, lakes and seas in Russia.
Our Earth is our home. I think people must take care of our Motherland.
There are some laws and decisions on this important subject. We have state organizations which pay attention to this problem.
The international conventions pay much attention to the control of pollution too.
There are a lot of industrial enterprises in our country, that's why we can't ignore the problem of the protection of our environment. Our main aim is the protection.
Our environment must be clean. What must we do for it? We have to control atmospheric and water pollution, to study the man's influence on the climate. The pollution of the environment influences the life of animals, plants and our human life. If we don't use chemicals in a proper way we'll pollute our environment.
Our plants and factories put their waste materials into water and atmosphere and pollute the environment.
There are many kinds of transport in our big cities, that's why we must pay attention to the protection of our nature and the health of the people.
Radiation. Now it has become one of the main problems. It is not good for health of people. Many people died from radiation some years ago in Chernobyl. It was a tragedy. Another problem is earthquake. We know some terrible earthquakes in the world. Our scientists try to forecast earthquakes, then we can protect ourselves from them.
The people all over the world do everything to protect their nature, to make their country richer, to make their life happier. | |

К оглавлению /
Environmental protection
It is a small world we live in, and it is high time for all of us to realize it. Since ancient times people have been trying to produce more and more to increase human wealth. Nobody noticed that we were destroying Nature by using it as the source of raw materials, and as the garbage can for our waste. Nature seemed to be boundless and endless... Far from it as it turned out. Millions of cars and smoky factories pollute and spoil the air we breathe in. Pollution is hanging over big cities like an ugly brown cloud. It is hurting our lungs as well as the life of animals, birds and plants. People need wood and paper, so we cut down our forests. We don't know what to do with waste materials of our industry, so we pour them into water, bury them into soil, shoot them into atmosphere. We pollute the water we drink, and the land we live in. People build nuclear power stations and carry out nuclear tests. As a result, radiation represents one of the main problems nowadays. The rapid growth of population in the world may turn into another grave problem very soon. The speed with which we are using up our non-renewable resourses like oil and gas, is appaling. With the development of our civilization we have become dangerous to the planet and to ourselves. What must we do not to find ourselves in a dirty desert in the near future? This question cannot be ignored. Some scientists are pessimistic about our problems. They suppose that we have already reached the point of no return. Others are more optimistic and believe that our ecological problems are solvable because more and more people begin to understand how dangerous they are. There is increasing awareness of people of the real state of the planet. In many countries environmental protection agencies and research centres are set up. Such organizations as "Green Peace" and "Friends of the Earth" try to put pressure upon those governments that do not care for ecology in their countries. The humankind will be able to survive only if we all understand that environmental protection is our universal concern.

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