Endagered Species

Topics: Top-down and bottom-up design, Environment, Writing Pages: 9 (2926 words) Published: February 3, 2013
1. Decodable Text
* There are five levels of decodable text, ranging from highly decodable to minimally decodable. Highly decodable books use one-syllable and one-vowel-sound words, such as “cat,” “fun” or “sit.” These might also use some short sight words, such as “a,” “an” and “the.” Very decodable text still uses simple words, but those words may now have an extra letter or use blends that the students are learning in class, such as “this,” “such” or “that.” Decodable text adds more of the letter blend combinations in the reading, encouraging the students to practice using the ideas the teacher presents in their reading lessons. Somewhat decodable leveled books force the children to depend more on their sounding out skills than memorization of the rules. There are still some of the familiar words and sounds, but suffixes and prefixes are also part of the reading text. Minimally decodable text is for the most advanced students. The text in these leveled books is much more difficult and has more unfamiliar words. 2. Predictability Scale

* Leveled books use a predictability scale. The easiest books use a lot of words that rhyme, such as “hat,” “cat,” “bat” and “rat.” The theme of the story may also be somewhat predictable, which encourages the children to keep on reading. More difficult books have fewer rhyming words and the theme of the story may not be so predictable, making the students have to keep on reading to find out exactly what happens in the end.

* The way the leveled reading book flows is methodology. There are several different levels of methodology, ranging from the simplest stories with one theme to more complex stories having more than one them or subplots. The simpler stories are easy for children to read and keep up with what is going on. However, the more complex stories may have two or three threads that all tie in together in the end. The words and the stories of the simpler leveled reading books are short, while the words and the numbers of words are longer in the higher levels of difficulty.

Descriptive:  This includes main idea and detail such as the following  
    "..... in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the hight of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the Horns which is not very hard and forks 2/3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its face white round its neck, its Sides and rump round its tail which is Short & white:Verry actively made, has only a pair of hoofs to each foot, his brains on the back of his head, his Norstrals large, his eyes like a Sheep he is more like the Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat."  Lewis and Clark As Naturalists

Enumerative/listing:  This includes listing connected information, outlining a series of steps, or placing ideas in a hierarchy, such as the following:  
By early 1803 Lewis was in Philadelphia. He took crash courses in medicine, botany, zoology, and celestial observation. He studied maps and journals of traders and trappers who had already reached as far up the Missouri River as the Mandan villages in North Dakota. By the time he left Washington he knew as much about the West, and what to do when he got there, as any man in America.  Lewis and Clark:  Preparations

Sequence: This includes a series of events leading up to a conclusion, or the sequence of occurrences related to a particular happening.  Note that the events can be separated in years as in a historical time line; or in a series of actions taking only a few seconds, hours, days.  Such is the example below.  Both enumerative and sequential text organization is basic to completing a set of directions to perform a task either in a laboratory of work setting. January 18, 1803 - In secret communication to Congress, Jefferson seeks authorization for expedition – first...
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