Electronic Engineer

Topics: Wireless sensor network, Sensor, OSI model Pages: 14 (4716 words) Published: August 24, 2013
2012 14th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation

Path Loss Effect on Energy Consumption in a WSN
∗ Krishna

Doddapaneni,∗ Enver Ever,∗ Orhan Gemikonakli,† Ivano Malavolta,∗ Leonardo Mostarda,† Henry Muccini Communications Department, School of Engineering & Information Sciences, Middlesex University, UK Email:{k.doddapaneni, e.ever, o.gemikonakli, l.mostarda}@mdx.ac.uk † Dipartimento Di Informatica De L’Aquila Via Vetoio L’Aquila 67100, Italy Email:{ivano.malavolta,henry.muccini}@univaq.it

∗ Computer

Abstract—Energy consumption of nodes is a crucial factor that constrains the networks life time for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). WSNs are composed of small sensors equipped with lowpower devices, and have limited battery power supply. The main concern in existing architectural and optimisation studies is to prolong the network lifetime. The lifetime of the sensor nodes is affected by different components such as the microprocessor, the sensing module and the wireless transmitter/receiver. The existing works mainly consider these components to decide on best deployment, topology, protocols and so on. Recent studies have also considered the monitoring and evaluation of the path loss caused by environmental factors. Path loss is always considered in isolation from the higher layers such as application and network. It is necessary to combine path loss computations used in physical layer, with information from upper layers such as application layer for a more realistic evaluation. In this paper, a simulation-based study is presented that uses path-loss model and application layer information in order to predict the network lifetime. Physical environment is considered as well. We show that when path-loss is introduced, increasing the transmission power is needed to reduce the amount of packets lost. This presents a tradeoff between the residual energy and the successful transmission rate when more realistic settings are employed for simulation. It is a challenging task to optimise the transmission power of WSNs, in presence of path loss, because although increasing the transmission power reduces the residual energy, it also reduces the number of retransmissions required. Index Terms—attenuation; path loss; wireless sensor networks; energy consumed; life time

Evaluation tools

Analytical modeling

Simulators

Real Deployment

Test Beds

Fig. 1.

Performance evaluation methods

I. I NTRODUCTION Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which comprise many low cost, low power, and multifunctional sensor nodes to accomplish certain sensing tasks in an intelligent manner. A sensor network is a special type of network which generally consists of a data acquisition system and a data distribution system. The unique characteristics of WSNs in terms of data collection and energy constrains, separate them from other communication networks. In Figure 1 we show the most common techniques for performance evaluation that are analytical modelling, simulation and benchmarking. The existing studies consider benchmarking in form of test beds and measurements for real deployment. The energy constrains of WSNs, limits their processing capabilities and communication. Therefore, using one of these performance evaluation methods, and analysis of deployment and management of such complex systems is a challenging task [1]. Due to inherent complexity and diverse nature of WSNs (dynamic topology, wireless channel characteristics, mobility, 978-0-7695-4682-7/12 $26.00 © 2012 IEEE DOI 10.1109/UKSim.2012.87 569

density of the nodes etc.), analytical methods may become inappropriate as they require certain simplifications to model and predict the performance of the system. The simplifications may lead to inaccurate results in case of unrealistic assumptions [2],[3]. Experimental studies such as [4],[5],[6],[7] are not always practical...
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