Topics: Management / Pages: 18 (4497 words) / Published: Jan 21st, 2014
DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT Management was influenced by various disciplines like sociology, economics, political science, anthropology, psychology, and even literature. Due to such multidisciplinary influences, even authors like Harold Koontz (1961) referred to management as a ‘jungle’. Even then, differences exist in the classification of approaches. Although one of the ways to classify management approaches is from the analysis of John G. Hutchinson (1971), which considers the development of management from five different perspectives, the history of management can be broadly classified into three groups: (1) the classical approach, (2) the neo-classical approach, and (3) the modern approach.
The classical approach has conventionally implied traditionally accepted views. This approach emphasizes organizational efficiency to increase organizational success. It believes in functional interrelationships, following of certain principles based on experience, a bureaucratic structure, and a reward-punishment nexus. The classical school of thought developed in three different directions: the scientific management approach, the administrative approach, and the bureaucratic approach, which also falls under the administrative school of thought. The bureaucratic approach was pioneered by Weber (1920), the scientific management approach by Taylor (1903), and the concept of administrative theory by Fayol (1949).
The neo-classical approach /Behavioral approach emphasized human relations, the importance of the person behind the machine, individual as well as group relationships, and social aspects. This approach was pioneered by Mayo and his associates (1933). It was further extended to the behavioral sciences approach, pioneered by Abraham Maslow (1968, 1971), Chris Argyris (1957), Douglas McGregor (1960), and Rensis Likert (1961). The quantitative approach (which developed during World War II and believes in economic effectiveness to solve business

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