Explain, using an example in EACH case, the meaning of the following terms:
Outline the main components of a health and safety management system.
Candidates were expected to do well on this question. The expectation was sadly not realised in a large number of cases and it was disturbing to find that so many found difficulty with a question that should have been relatively straightforward for anyone who had studied the outline of a management system for health and safety.
Good answers, albeit few in number, were those that addressed the following components and highlighted the essential features of each:
the policy to be a clear statement of intent, setting the main health and safety aims and objectives of the company; •
the organisation for health and safety to be such as to ensure the allocation of responsibility to appropriate members of staff, with the emphasis on achieving competency, control, communication and consultation; •
planning and implementing to involve risk assessment, the setting of standards and the introduction of appropriate control measures to achieve the standards; •
measuring performance by active and reactive monitoring methods; •
review and audit to check whether what was planned is actually taking place, and to consider options for improvement, setting new targets where necessary.
Define the term `negligence'
a tort involving a breach of the common law duty to take reasonable care.
Explain, using an example, the meaning of the term ‘risk’.
Identify EIGHT sources of information that might usefully be consulted when developing a safe system of work.
Most candidates were able to secure at least a few marks in answering this question. A selection could have been made from sources such as statutory instruments, ACOPs and HSE guidance, manufacturers' information, European and other official standards, industry or trade literature, results of risk assessments, accident statistics and health/medical surveillance records, the employees involved, and enforcement agencies and other experts.
This should have been a straightforward question yet some candidates' answers were very limited or were vague as to the precise source. For instance, 'books' or 'the internet' were considered rather too unspecific to be worthy of credit.
Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a review of health and safety training within an organisation.
Most candidates provided a reasonable answer to this question by referring to circumstances such as: the introduction of new technology or a new item of equipment or process; a job change for one or a group of individuals; accident incidence data or the findings of an accident investigation; the results of risk assessments or review; new legislation or guidance; a result of enforcement action; new employees with special needs (eg young persons or disabled workers); and requirements imposed by the employer's insurance company.
An employer intends to implement a programme of regular workplace inspections following a workplace accident.
(i) Outline the factors that should be considered when planning such inspections.
(ii) Outline THREE additional proactive methods that could be used in the monitoring of health and safety performance.
(iii) Identify the possible costs to the organization as a result of the accident.
In answering part (i) of the question, candidates could have referred to such factors as: the nature of the hazards in the workplace; the composition and competence of the inspection team; the areas to be inspected and the routes to follow; the timing and frequency of the inspections; the relevant legislation and standards against which the results of the inspection would be judged; the preparation and provision of checklists; and the action that should follow the inspections (such as the procedures...
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