Health care code requirements
The health maintenance and enhancement, the safety and the comfort of people in health care facilities are seriously affected if specific building requirements are not met. Hospitals are the most complex of building types. Each hospital is comprised of a wide range of services and functional units. Functional organization criteria classify health care facility environments as follows: nursing units, operating theatres, diagnostic facilities (radiology unit, laboratory units and so on), outpatients’ departments, administration area (offices), dietary facilities, linen services, engineering services and equipment areas, corridors and passages.
Several specific requirements have been defined for each area in health care facilities: 1- Nursing unit:
a broad room with 20 to 30 beds
The space requirements should be at least: 6 to 8 square meters (sqm) per bed for open wards, inclusive of circulation and ancillary rooms In open wards, toilet facilities should be close to patients’ beds Multiple and single bedrooms:
5 to 7 sqm/bed for multiple bedrooms and 9 sqm for single bedrooms For single and multiple bedrooms, handwashing facilities should be provided in each room; lavatories may be omitted where a toilet room is provided to serve one single-bed room or one two-bed room Nursing stations:
Nursing stations should be large enough to accommodate desks and chairs for record keeping, tables and cabinets for preparation of drugs, instruments and supplies, chairs for sit-down conferences with physicians and other staff members, a wash-up sink and access to a staff toilet. 2- Operating theatres
Two main classes of elements should be considered: operating rooms and service areas Operating rooms should be classified as follows: General operating room, needing a minimum clear area of 33.5 sqm. Room for orthopaedic surgery (optional), needing enclosed storage space for splints and traction equipment room for cardiovascular surgery (optional), needing a minimum clear area of 44 sqm. In the clear area of the surgical suite, nearby the operating room, an additional pump room should be designed, where extracorporeal pump supplies and accessories are stored and serviced. Room for endoscope procedures, needing a minimum clear area of 23 sqm rooms for waiting patients, induction of anaesthesia and recovery from anaesthesia.
Service areas should include:
Sterilizing facility with high-speed autoclave,
Medical gas storage facilities and staff clothing change areas.
3- Diagnostic facilities:
Each radiology unit should include :
appointment desk and waiting areas
diagnostic radiographic rooms, needing 23 sqm for fluoroscopic procedures and about 16 sqm for radiographic ones, plus a shielded control area, and rigid support structures for ceiling-mounted equipment (where necessary) dark room (where necessary), needing almost 5 sqm and appropriate ventilation for the developer contrast media preparation area, clean-up facilities, film quality control area, computer area and film storage area viewing area where films can be read and reports dictated.
The wall thickness in a radiology unit should be 8 to 12 cm (poured concrete) . The diagnostic activities in health care facilities may require tests in haematology, clinical chemistry, microbiology, pathology and cytology. Each laboratory area should be provided with work areas, sample and material storage facilities (refrigerated or not), specimen collection facilities, facilities and equipment for terminal sterilization and waste disposal, and a special facility for radioactive material storage. 4- Outpatient departments.
Clinical facilities should include:
general-purpose examination rooms (7.4 sqm), special-purpose examination rooms (varying with the specific equipment needed) and treatment rooms (11 sqm). In addition, administrative facilities are needed for the admittance of outpatients.5-...
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