the difference between language and dialect.
Language is one of the fundamental things for our daily living. The main reason behind development a society is communication and there is no doubt the language is the best way of communication so far. So we can say that the contribution of language for human civilization is enormous. As a language community a community can be own difference of expression, attitude, tone, accent. That is making a language variation in same community. This is called dialect. Before the discussion of difference between language and dialect it is essential to know what language is and what dialect is.
Traditionally we can say language is sound which uttered by our vocal organ. But many of linguist are not satisfied with this definition they have describe language as bellow-
Sapir, Edward says,
Language is pure human and non instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by mean of a system of voluntarily produced symbols. Bloomfield has described language as
Totality of the utterance that can be made in a speech community. Linguist Edgar H.sturtevant says,
A language is a system of a social group co-operate and interact.
So in collaboration we can stand upon these point discussed bellow- 1. No sounds but sound which uttered by human vocal organ is the main element of language. 2. Not every single sound uttered by human vocal organ is language but sound which really denote symbol of object and emotion. Besides this a language must has some other characteristics which are shown bellow- 1. used by a special community which share cultural bonding. 2. Language is a self acted behavior of human.
3. The vocal way of communication.
4. It can be regular or irregular.
5. Language follows some rules which can be change.
Standard language: standard language also known as standard dialect or standardized dialect is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse or communication. Many prominent language like English, German, Serbo-Croatian, French, Portuguese and Spanish has standard and dialect. There is some basic feature of standard language. Those are --- 1. It can frequently be used in public places or public discourse. 2. It has Popularity and acceptance in the community.
3. Used in the broad-casting and news media.
4. It has Constitutional status (frequently as an official language) 5. Represent a standard pronunciation .
The Literal meaning of dialect is the way of speaking. The term was first used in 1600’s in English. Previously it has been used in Greek and later in Latin. In other word, every language area has some sub language area under it. Which follows the main standard language but with some difference in utterance. That’s why some people call dialect regional dialect. Almost all standard language has dialect. Sometimes when the difference between standard language and dialect are huge, there can be the dialect become a distinct language. Prominent linguist define dialect as follows-
R.L Trask says,
A particular variety of language spoken by the people in some geographical area or in a particular social group. Suvash bhartacharya sas
A language could has many regional variety. We can call them dialect. Longman dictionary defines
A variety of a language spoken in one part of a country , or by people belonging to a particular social class , which is different in some words, grammar and pronunciation from other from of the same language.
William labov has explained as below.
In his opinion when people speak in dialect that mean –
1. He/she is speaking is unknown accent.
2. He/she is some rural speaking.
3. He is not very skilled in standard language.
Characteristics of dialect:
1. Regional variety of a standard from
2. The utterance of dialect is unique
3. Maximum time using dialect is influenced by rural or urban socio-cultural aspects. 4. Dialect can be varied...
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