P1-Describe physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the life stages of an individual. Contraception and Birth
Each month a woman will produce one egg from both of her ovaries, which will eventually then lie on eat side of her uterus. The egg will firstly need to travel down the fallopian tubes and then it will be released into the uterus. Male semen will then be needed for conception, this contain millions of sperm which only one will be needed to make the father genetic contribution to a baby. Sperm contains 23 chromosomes the same as an egg, sperm also swims as it has to move up the cervix, in the uterus and along the fallopian tubes. During sexual intercourse the man will ejaculate and the sperm and the egg will form a ball of cells called an embryo. After one to one and half days later the egg will begin to divide. Then after 3 weeks of fertilisation the embryo will grow to be up to 0.5cm long and will start to develop a brain, eyes, ears and limbs. At 8 weeks organs are formed, a heartbeat will become recognisable and so will facial features. The embryo will now be 3-4 cm long and is now called a foetus. At 20 weeks growth and development is still continuing and the foetus is now half the length and weight of a new born baby. At 40 weeks the foetus is ready to be born at around 50 cm long and weighing 3.5 kg. At 9 months a fully formed baby is born.
Infancy 0-3 years
At birth babies are able to react to sudden noises, close their eyes to bright lights and open their eyes when being held up right. A baby is born with little head and neck movements; the first important physical skill they need to master is lifting their head and shoulders. At 4 months he or she will become stronger and be able to lift their chest. At 6 to 7 months he or she will be able to play with objects using their hands, which is a beginning of gross motor skills. Through a babies development muscles begin to strengthen dramatically, enabling a baby to stand on all fours, rock back and forth and take on full force crawling which is achieved around 8 to 9 months of age. Once a baby reaches his or hers first birthday they will start managing to support large amounts of weight and can start pulling themselves up onto their feet, beginning to learn to walk. This is known as a stage where he or she will walk unsupported across a room, stopping or either changing direction. At the age of one he or she will also tackle throwing, climbing the stairs, or propelling scoot toys which act towards an infant’s play skills. From the age of 2 and 3 he or she will become more steadied when walking, and during this stage they learn to stand holding more weight on one leg, tackle running and walking backwards. Between the ages of 30 to 34 months he or she are able to use outdoor play equipment, taking on jumping over obstacles and alternating their feet without holding onto anything to support them. Intellectual Development-
At around 4 months an infant will begin to develop intellectually, he or she will explore using their mouth or by playing with fingers and toes. He or she can react to a sound or a voice and show attentions to bright colours and lights. At 8 months he or she can cry in ways which can show what’s wrong, for example if he or she feared something. Noises can also be made to detect how he or she feels about something, for example whether he or she is happy or sad with the toy she has been given. A young infant will also examine objects further by using their senses; touch, smell, etc. They also begin to start focusing on things, for example the shape or a certain toy. He or she will begin to show development in using their voices by babble expressively as if they were to be talking. Between the ages of 1 to 3 years he or she will begin to go through the development stages of speaking, firstly by pronouncing a first word and secondly by using equivalents for words such as ‘ma ma’. He or she...
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