Dammi

Topics: Police, Constable, Police officer Pages: 31 (11057 words) Published: May 4, 2013
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY AND JUSTICE STUDIES, VOL.1 NO.1: APRIL, 2005 OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE POLICING IN NIGERIA Emmanuel C. Onyeozili Department of Criminal Justice University of Maryland Eastern Shore

Abstract
This paper traces the history of colonial social control and Policing in Nigeria, and also reviews the literature and examines how colonialism demonized, discredited, and supplanted the traditional system of policing. It establishes that in place of the old (traditional) system, colonialism imposed a new (but alien) militarized policing geared toward the colonial needs of political oppression and economic exploitation without regard to the needs of the colonized. The postcolonial state was thus bequeathed a corrupt police system that fails to cater to the needs of the people. This unfortunate development explains the emergence of “ethnic armies” in the face of corrupt and insensitive national police.

Introduction In the face of ever increasing acts of lawlessness, social disorder, armed robbery, and senseless vindictive assassinations in Nigeria, it has become necessary to look for causal explanations that go beyond superficial semantics. This research work is therefore intended to add to the body of literature that go to substantiate the claim that colonial policing was not introduced to protect the lives and property of Africans. It was rather introduced to protect colonial interests (traders and missionary agents) financed to serve the economic needs of colonialism which is exploitation. Additionally, this work will lend credence to the view that the present obstacles in the way of effective policing in Nigeria is an inevitable aftermath of a colonial system designed to conquer, displace, and suppress, for the sole objective of exploiting African indigenous labor and resources. Nigeria needs to shade off neocolonial apron that has stymied progress and embrace innovative approaches geared towards combating the obstacles in the way of a detached professionalized police. Some of the options are suggested in this work.

Study Methodology The research on obstacles to effective policing in Nigeria is part of data collected over several years. The study methodology is based on ethnographic observation of events as they evolve over the years; from independence through the Nigerian civil war, various military regimes, and (s)elected representative governments. It also includes analysis of Nigerian newspapers and magazines, academic journal articles, books, archival materials, and internet-based documented source materials. Other sources of data include

32

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY AND JUSTICE STUDIES, VOL.1 NO.1: APRIL, 2005 convenient sample personal (clarification) interviews of selected individuals and officials whom the author felt have something relevant to contribute. The Colonial and Post-independence Policing Experiment The origins, development and role of the European type of police forces in Africa are traceable to the nature of European interests in the continent and the reactions of the indigenous people to their activities. With the advent of colonialism came the distortion of the traditional institutions and values, which had from time immemorial sustained harmonious relationship, peace, and security of lives and property in the pre-colonial African communities. Thus, the legacy of Western plantation (and in some cases racist) ideology is the portrayal of African societies and cultures as lawless and disorderly (Onoge, 1993). This negative image had its roots in the long ordeal of the slave trade, and later colonialism, which mediated modern Africa’s interaction with the West. Following conquest, colonial rule was consolidated through a system that subjugated the existing traditional informal law enforcement mechanism with the forceful imposition of the Western idea of policing. Thus, the colonialists introduced new laws, which replaced, or seriously threatened the efficacy of...

Bibliography: Achebe, Chinua (1959): Things Fall Apart. New York: Ballantine Books. Achike, O. [1980]: Groundwork of Military Rule in Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension. Ahire, Philip Terdoo (1991). Imperial Policing: The Emergence and Role of the Police in Colonial Nigeria. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Alemika, Etannibi E. O. (1988). Policing and Perceptions of Police in Nigeria. Police Studies 11(4): 161-176. Anene, Joseph C. (1966): The Peoples of Benin, the Niger Delta, Congo and Angola in the Nineteenth Century. In Anene, Joseph C.; Brown, Godfrey Africa in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Eds.). Ibadan: Ibadan University Press & Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.. Asemota, S.A. (1993) Policising Under Civilian and Military Administrations. In Tamuno, T.N. et al. eds.: Policising Nigeria: Past, Present and Future. Crowder, Michael (1978). Colonial West Africa: Collected Essays. London; New Jersey: Frank Cass & Company Limited. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2001). The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (Amendment) vol. 11. Lagos: Government Press. Ikime, Obaro (1968). Merchant Prince of the Niger Delta: The Rise and Fall of Nana Olomu, Last Governor of the Benin River. London: Heinemann Educational. _______ (1977). The Fall of Nigeria: The British Conquest. London: Heinemann. Kalusi, J. I.: (2000). Education and Ethnicity in Nigeria: A case For Reconstructionism. In Ayo Adewole and Oluremi Ayodele, eds. Philosophising About African Education. Nigeria. Macmillan. Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. (1983). Ethnic Engineering and the “Federal Character” of Nigeria: Boon of Contentment or Bone of Contention? Ethnic and Racial Studies Vol. 6 No.4, October. Mann, Kristin and Robert, Richard (1991). Law in Colonial Africa. Ibadan, Heinemann. Nwabueze, B.O. (1992). Military Rule and Constitutionalism. Enugu, Spectrum.
52
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY AND JUSTICE STUDIES, VOL.1 NO.1: APRIL, 2005 Obasanjo, O. and Mabogunje, A. eds. (1992). Elements of Democracy. Abeokuta: ALF Publications. Oberg, K. (1987). The Kingdom of Ankole in Uganda. In Fortes, M. and Evans–Prichard, E.E. eds., African Political Systems. London: Kegan Paul International. Okereke, Godspower O. (1995): Police Officers’ Perceptions of the Nigerian Police Force. Journal of Criminal Justice. V.23 no.95. Onage, O.F.: 1993 Social conflicts and crime control in Colonial Nigeria. In Tamuno, et al. eds. Policising Nigeria: Past, Present and Future. Onwudiwe, Ihekwoaba D. (2000). Decentralization of the Nigerian Police Force. The International Journal of African Studies. Vol. 2, no. 1. Tamuno, Takena N., Bashir, I.L., Alemika, E.O., Akano, A.O. eds. (1993) Policising Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future. Panel on Policising Nigeria Project. Lagos: Malthouse. Tamuno, Takena N. [1970]: The Police in Modern Nigeria, 1861-1965 : Origins, Development, and Role. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press. _________ [1972]: The Evolution of the Nigerian State, The Southern Phase, 1894-1914. London: Longman. _________ [1989] Trends in Policy: The Police and Prisons. In Tamuno, T.N. and Atanda, J.A., eds.; Nigeria since Independence, The First 25 Years, Vol. iv. Government and Public Policy. Daily Newspapers Daily Times, August 14, 2000 National Interest, Vol.1 No.37, January 7, 2001 The Source, July 31, 2000 Tell, June 5, 2000. Tell, July 31, 2000 Tell, August 7, 2000 Tell, August 28, 2000 Tell, November 29, 1999 The Comet, July 31, 2000 The Concord, December 30, 1999 The Guardian, June 20, 2000 The Guardian, July 28, 2000 The Guardian, August 31, 2000 The Post Express, June 14, 2000 The Post Express, June 14, 2001 The Punch, March 26, 2001
53
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY AND JUSTICE STUDIES, VOL.1 NO.1: APRIL, 2005 Online Newspaper sources Daily Independent. Tuesday January 18, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/18/416.html (retrieved 1/19/05) _______ Wednesday, January 19, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/19/444.html (retrieved 1/19/05) The Daily Champion. Wednesday, January 19, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan,19/600.html (retrieved 1/19/05) ________ Friday January 21, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/21/602.html (retrieved 1/21/05) The News. Tuesday, July 29, 2003. http://odili.net/new/source/2003/july/29/42.html (retrieved 1/21/05) This Day. Tuesday, January 18, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/18/205.html (retrieved 1/19/05) _______ Wednesday, January 19, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/19/207.html (retrieved 1/19/05) The Guardian. Tuesday January 18, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan.18/1.html (retrieved 1/19/05) ________ Wednesday January 19, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/19/13.html (retrieved 1/19/05) The Punch. Wednesday January 19, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/19/511.html (retrieved 1/19/05) ________ Sunday Jan 23, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/23/520.html (retrieved 1/23/05) ________ Wednesday January 26, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/26/520.html The Vanguard. Wednesday, January 19, 2005. http://odili.net/news/source/2005/jan/19/330.html (retrieved 1/19/05).
54
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free