Preview

Critically Compare the Epistemologies Governing the First and Second Order Cybernetics.

Good Essays
Open Document
Open Document
745 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Critically Compare the Epistemologies Governing the First and Second Order Cybernetics.
Critically compare the epistemologies governing the first- and second order cybernetic approaches in terms of the following:
1. How is reality seen by each specific approach? According to first-order cybernetics there is one objective reality and our differences in opinion about the same system, is only due to our different interpretations of the same reality (Becvar & Becvar, 2009). First-order cybernetics assumes that the system being observed is separate from the observer, who would be able to objectively observe the system from the outside and influence it, without entering the system itself (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2004). Second-order cybernetics on the other hand assumes that there is no such thing as reality. There is no absolute, objective system, but for each person there is a different system, which is absolutely valid (Becvar & Becvar, 2009). Reality is seen as an agreed upon consensus that occurs through social interaction of members of a system (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2004).

2. How is health and pathology addressed by each approach? In order to define pathology, one would have to have a definition of normalcy, hence an objective reality of what normalcy entails. This is not in line with second-order cybernetics as in second-order cybernetics “reality” is not an objective truth (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2004). Pathology would thus only exist as a subjective truth. What constitutes normalcy for the one person may be seen as pathologic by the next. First-order cybernetics, on the other hand, does allow for the diagnoses of pathology as reality is seen as an objective truth of which individuals only have different perceptions.

3. How does each specific approach deal with therapy? Hoffman 1990 (as cited in Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2004) explains that the first-order view of family therapy assumes that the therapist can influence his/her clients by using this or that technique. Whilst in second-order cybernetics the therapist forms part of the



References: Becvar, D.S., & Becvar, R.J. (2009). Family therapy: A systemic integration (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Goldenber, I., & Goldenberg, H (2004). Family therapy: An overview (6th ed.). London: Thompson.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Approaches to Family Therapy: Minuchin, Haley, Bowen, & Whitaker Treating families in therapy can be a complex undertaking for a therapist, as they are dealing not only with a group of individuals but also with an overall system. Throughout history several key theorists have attempted to demystify the challenges families face and construct approaches to treatment. However, there have been key similarities and differences among the theoretical orientations along the way. While some have simply broadened or expanded from existing theories, others have stood in stark contrast to prior thought. Though a variety of approaches exist today, it’s critical for a therapist to understand how to conceptualize a family in these key areas; the belief about the root cause of the family’s problems and the belief about what facilitates change. These foundational concepts will help in determining specific techniques or strategies for treatment. Specifically, in considering Minuchin, Haley, Bowen, and Whitaker as four of the key family theorists, there are overarching, debatable themes that emerge in considering these areas. For example, one theme that seems to emerge for consideration is whether family problems originate due to their interactions and patterns of relating with one another, or their individual characteristics and feelings within the family unit. Similarly, another theme up for debate is whether change happens from the outside in, meaning changing behavior patterns to ultimately change individuals and perceptions in the system, or inside out, meaning the changes must first take place at an individual experience and/or insight level before impacting the overall system and behavior. Though there are certainly differences in conceptualization in these specific areas, there are also many examples of…

    • 1911 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Nichols, M. P. (2012). Family therapy: Concepts and methods. (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Pearson Education Inc.…

    • 862 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Coun 510 Db Forum#2

    • 359 Words
    • 2 Pages

    References: Nichol, M. P. & Schwartz, R. C. (2008). Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods (8th ed.). New…

    • 359 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    References: D240 Course team (2010) Video Excerpt 13: The process of systemic family therapy, Milton Keynes, The Open University.…

    • 2063 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Nichols, M. (2013). Family therapy concepts and methods (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc..…

    • 1315 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    References: Goldenberg, I. & Goldenberg, H. (2008). Family therapy: An overview (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.…

    • 690 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Best Essays

    The Grape Family

    • 2445 Words
    • 10 Pages

    After Gilbert’s father committed suicide his mother went into a deep depression and could not cope with the day to day activities in her family. It was during this time that Gilbert became the head of the household and the primary caregiver not only to his younger siblings but to his mother as well. In dysfunctional families with deficient parents, the children are often robbed of their childhood and learn to ignore their own needs and feelings (Forward, 1989). A complete shift in roles took place because his mother was mentally not capable of giving her children the needed protection, support, or care. According to Minuchin, (1974), the role reversal develops when families are unable to maintain hierarchical generational boundaries in which the parents’ guide and nurture their children and the children seek comfort and advice from their parents.…

    • 2445 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Good Essays

    When Isaac Asimov envisioned a world in which robots would be as common as humans, he determined all of the ethics and morals that would bind these smart machines with three rules: “1. A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow it to come to harm, 2. A robot must always obey a human, unless this conflicts with the first law, 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as this doesn’t interfere with the first or second law” (Asimov, 1941). These three statements were baptized as the Three Laws of Robotics, and to the day they serve as a standard for robots and a goal for artificial intelligence researchers. But as the Laws were created in a time when people thought that by 2015 visiting Mercury would be a routine…

    • 1039 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Best Essays

    Family Counseling

    • 2705 Words
    • 11 Pages

    Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy, an overview. (7 ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub Co.…

    • 2705 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (Eds.). (1989). The changing family life cycle a framework for family therapy (2nd ed., pp. 513-542). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon…

    • 2029 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Structural Family Therapy

    • 744 Words
    • 3 Pages

    At the time, I was sure that I would never use this model because of the “Chinese torturer” manner in which it was first presented, but now I know that it fits in perfectly with my style of treatment. The primary reason that model fits comfortably with my counseling context is that structural therapy seems to work best with the population that I service now and hope to work with after I complete my doctorate. I work with inner city families that are predominantly lower income( less than 30,000 per year household income). The style of interaction with my families tends to be concrete and action oriented rather than abstract and verbal. In fact it you talk too much, they tend to shut down and lose trust.…

    • 744 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Francois, C. (1999). Systemics and cybernetics in a historical perspective. Retrieved from John Wiley & Sons, Ltd website: http://www.nomads.usp.br/pesquisas/design/objetos_interativos/arquivos/restrito/francois_systemics_and_cybernetics.pdf…

    • 1488 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Many of the basic theories were borrowed from individual and group therapy. It borrowed techniques such as role-playing and emotional confrontation borrowed from Gestalt therapy, however as Nichols and Schwartz (2001) observed, by focussing emotions rather than the dynamics of interaction, experiential therapist seemed somewhat out of step with the rest of family therapy (pp.139).…

    • 4808 Words
    • 19 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The negative aspect of the biomedical model is that it doesn't take into account factors that contribute to the illness, for example it does not look at the environment/social history of the individual and the psychological history of the individual.…

    • 827 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    In response, supporters of the multiple realizability thesis who are functionalists have clarified that a mental state is a “second-order” physical state, or that the physical state instatiating a single mental state will not be exactly the same among organisms with different physiological systems. For functionalists, then, the Correlation Thesis is limited by the condition that there is just a similar “structure type” amongst the various organisms which are capable of having the same mental state (5). However, as Kim points out, within a single system there can be multiple ways for a mental state to be realized. As a consequence of this, for a given mental state, pain, there is a disjunction physical states, of which only the presence of one disjunct (physical state) is required for pain (the mental state) to be instatiated. While each physical state that realizes pain will not itself be a disjunction, there is the question of why the disjunction of all the possible instantiating physical states cannot be the correlate of pain rather than a singular physical state (7). Most advocates of multiple realizability would view this as a threat to the thesis, as the mental state of pain, instead of having multiple physical states correlates, would instead have one correlate that is…

    • 1234 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays