Creativity

Topics: Design, Creativity, Architecture Pages: 41 (11976 words) Published: April 29, 2013
Int J Technol Des Educ (2010) 20:453–476 DOI 10.1007/s10798-009-9102-z

Methods that may stimulate creativity and their use in architectural design education ´ Doris C. C. K. Kowaltowski • Giovana Bianchi • Valeria Teixeira de Paiva

Published online: 13 November 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Abstract The architectural design process is based on a creative phase where creativity is highly valued. Although the literature on creativity is rich in ways to stimulate the decision-making process, these tools are rarely formally present in the building design process. To further the discussion on creativity and design education this paper presents a study on methods that may enhance the creative process and their application in architecture courses around the world. The results of this inquiry indicate that design instructors apply methods that may stimulate creativity mostly informally, with some positive results. To explore more fully the richness of the literature on the enhancement of creativity, structured applications of methods are recommended in controlled experiments to analyze results. Keywords Creativity Á Creative design Á Design education Á Problem solving Á Methods that may stimulate creativity Á Architectural design

Introduction In recent decades universities and architecture schools in particular, have made important efforts to improve design education. The goals in new ways of teaching design are mainly concerned with enriching the pure artistic vision of architecture, through the insertion of scientific knowledge and social responsibility. Environmental comfort and the question of sustainability have increased the need for exact science and technical education. Social sciences need to instill sensitivities towards the relation of human behavior and elements of the built environment. Finally, results of studies on creativity should enrich the design process. In this paper, to further the discussion on design education a study on methods that may enhance creativity is presented. The results of an exploratory interview inquiry with design instructors, to investigate the application of such methods, are discussed. Architectural D. C. C. K. Kowaltowski (&) Á G. Bianchi Á V. T. de Paiva School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design, FEC, Department of Architecture and Building, DAC, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CP 6021, Campinas, SP, Brazil e-mail: doris@fec.unicamp.br

123

454

D. C. C. K. Kowaltowski et al.

design is used as the main object of inquiry, since the authors professional and teaching experiences are in this field. The discussion on the creative design process and the results of the exploratory interview study presented, are seen as having a wider application in the design field. Contemporary goals in higher education and particularly design education include giving students tools to stimulate the search for creative solutions to problems, as well as a solid scientific basis for decision-making processes. To achieve such goals, the introduction of methods that may enhance creativity can be found in the discussion on curricular reforms. The authors were interested in the application of tools that may enhance creativity, after conducting a teaching experiment in a bioclimatic design-studio of the Architecture and Urban Design Course of the State University of Campinas—Unicamp, in Brazil (Kowaltowski et al. 2007). The strength of restrictions, imposed on the design solution realm, was tested in the previous study. The results showed that restrictions could enhance creativity in students, especially through the challenge of breaking the imposed barriers by adopting new and original solutions. In addition, with restrictions made clear, students were more confident in their design proposals and the design process as a whole. The starting point of the exploratory investigation, presented in this paper, was a literature review that demonstrated that the...


References: Akin, O. (1986). Psychology of architectural design. London, UK: Pion. ˆncia da criatividade: abrindo as janelas para a criatividade pessoal e Alencar, E. M. L. S. (1996). A gere nas organizaco Sao Paulo, Brazil: Makron Books. ¸ ˜es. ˜ ´ ´ Alencar, E. M. L. S., & Fleith, D. S. (2004). Inventario de Praticas docentes que favorecem a criatividade no Ensino Superior. Psicologia Reflexiva e Crı´tica, 17(1), 105–110. Altshuller, G. S. (1984). Creativity as an exact science: The theory of the solution of inventive problems. New York, USA: Gordon and Breach. Barry, K., Domb, E. & Slocum, M. (2005). What is TRIZ?. TRIZ Journal. Practical Innovation: Applying the Concepts of TRIZ to Accelerate Innovation http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/what_is_triz[.
123
Methods that may stimulate creativity
475
Benyus, J. M. (1997). Biomimicry: Innovation inspired by nature. New York: William Morrow. ˜es Boden, M. A. (1999). Dimenso da Criatividade. Porto Alegre, Brazil: Artmed Editora. Boucharenc, B. (2006). Research on basic design education: And international survey. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 16, 1–30. ´ ˜ Bouillerce, B., & Carre, E. (2004). Saber desenvolver a criatividade na vida e no trabalho. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Larousse do Brasil. Broadbent, G. (1973). Design in architecture: Architecture and the human sciences. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons. ˜ Carsalade, F. D. L. (1997). Ensino de Projeto de Arquitetura: uma visao construtiva. Dissertation (Master of Architecture), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Casakin, H. (2004). Visual analogy as a cognitive strategy in the design process. Expert versus novice performance. The Journal of Design Research. http://www.research.it.uts.edu.au/creative/design/ papers/22CasakinDTRS6.pdf. Retrieved 12 Aug 2007. Christiaans, H., & Venselaar, K. (2005). Creativity in design engineering and the role of knowledge: Modelling the expert. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 15, 217–236. Clegg, B., & Birch, P. (2007). Instant creativity: Simple techniques to ignite innovation & problem solving. London, UK: Kogan Page. Coyne, R. (2005). Wicked problems revisited. Design Studies, 26(1), 5–17. Cross, N. (Ed.) (1984). Developments in design methodology (p. 357). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Cross, N. (1997). Creativity in design: Analyzing and modeling the creative leap. Leonardo, 30(4), 311–317. Cross, N. (2003). The expertise of exceptional designers. In N. Cross & E. Edmonds (Eds.), Expertise in design (pp. 23–35). Sydney, Australia: Creativity and Cognition Press, University of Technology. Cross, N. (2004). Expertise in design: An overview. Design Studies, 25(5), 427–441. Davis, G. A. (1992). Creativity is forever. Dubuque, US: Kendall/Hunt. de Bono, E. (1992). SERIOUS CREATIVITY: Using the power of lateral thinking to create new ideas. New York: HarperCollins. Gero, J. S. (2000). Computational models of innovative and creative design processes. In Technological Forecasting and Social Change (vol. 64(2–3), pp. 183–196). New York, US. Goldschmidt, G., & Smolkov, M. (2006). Variances in the impact of visual stimuli on design problem solving performance. Design Studies, 27(5), 549–569. Goldschmidt, G., & Tatsa, D. (2005). How good are good ideas? correlates of design creativity. Design Studies, 26(6), 593–611. ¸˜ Gouveia, A. P., Harris de Camargo, A. L. N., & Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K. (2001). Analogia e Abstracao no ˜ Ensino do Projeto em Arquitetura. Proceedings of Graphica 2001 (pp. 1092–1101). Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hershberger, R. (1999). Architectural programming and pre-design manager. Boston, US: McGraw Hill. ˜ Hertzberger, H. (1996). Lico de arquitetura. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Martins Fontes. ¸ ˜es Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1996). Mental leaps: Analogy in creative thought. Cambridge, US: MIT Press. Horng, J. S., Hong, J. C., Chanlin, L. J., Chang, S. H., & Chu, H. C. (2005). Creative teachers and creative teaching strategies. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 29, 352–358. Howard-Jones, P. A. (2002). A dual-state model of creative cognition for supporting strategies that foster creativity in the classroom. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 12, 215–226. Iashin-Shaw, I. (1994). Cognitive structures of creativity: Implications for instructional design. European Journal for High Ability, 5, 24–38. Jeamsinkul, C., Boztepe, S., Poppenpohl, S., Lim, Y. (2002). Annotated theory and practice in design—list. Visible Language, 36(2), 210–235. Jeffries, K. K. (2007). Diagnosing the creativity of designers: Individual feedback within mass higher education. Design Studies, 10(5), 485–497. Jones, C. (1963). A method of systematic design. In J. C. Jones & D. G. Thornley (Eds.), Conference on design methods—1962 (p. 53). Oxford: Pergameno Press. Jones, C. (1970). Design methods. London, UK: Wiley Bros. Kiatake, M. (2004). Modelo de suporte ao projeto criativo em Arquitetura: Uma aplicacao da TRIZ—teoria ¸˜ ´ da solucao inventiva de problemas (Master degree Dissertation), Escola Politecnica da Universidade ¸˜ ˜ ˜ de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. ˆncia da criatividade (J. Reis, Trans.). Sao Paulo, Brazil: IBRASA. ˜ Kneller, G. F. (1978). Arte e cie ¨ Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., Labaki, L., de Paiva, V., Bianchi, G., & Mosch, M. E. (2007). The creative design process supported by the restrictions imposed by bioclimatic and school architecture; a teaching experience. Proceedings of 2nd PALENC Conference, and 28th AIVC Conference: Building low energy cooling and advanced ventilation technologies in the 21st century (pp. 577–581). Crete, Greece.
123
476
D. C. C. K. Kowaltowski et al.
Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., Pina, S. A. M. G., & Barros, R. M. P. (2006c). Architectural Design Analysis as a Strategy for People Environment Studies: Finding Spaces ‘That Work’. Proceedings (CD) of 19th IAPS Conference, International Association for People-Environment Studies. Alexandria, Egypt. Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., Pina, S. A. M. G., & Celani, G. C. (2006b). Triple ‘t’: in search of innovative design teaching methods. Proceedings of CSAAR 2006 Changing Trends in Architectural Design Education. Rabat, Morocco. ˜ Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., Pina, S. A. M. G., Celani, G. C., & De Carvalho, D. M. (2006a). Reflexao sobre ˆ metodologias de projeto arquitetonico. Ambiente Construı´do, 6(2), 07–19. Lawson, B. (1997). How designers think: The design process demystified. Oxford, UK: Architectural Press. ´ ´ ´ ˆ Moreira, de Carvalho D. (2007). Os Princıpios da sıntese da forma e a a analise de projetos arquitetonicos, Doctoral Theses, School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil. Mycoted. (2007). Creativity and innovation, science and technology: Tools, techniques books, discussions. Accessed in: Aug 2007 http://www.mycoted.com/[. Naveiro, R. M. (2008). Design education in Brazil. Design Studies, 29(3), 304–312. Nicol, D., & Pilling, S. (2000). Changing architectural education: Towards a new professionalism. London, UK: E & FN Spon. Osborn, A. F. (1957). Applied imagination. New York, US: Scribner. Oxman, R. (1999a). Educating the designerly thinker. Design Studies, 20, 105–122. Oxman, R. (1999b). Think-maps: Teaching design thinking in design education. Design Studies, 25(1), 63–91. Poppenpohl, S., Teeravarunyou, S., Holguin, R., Boztepe, S., et al. (2002). Annotated theory and practice in design—list. Visible Language, 36(2), 172–192. Reid, A., & Petocz, P. (2004). Learning domains and the process of creativity. The Australian Educational Researcher, 31(2), 45–62. Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–169. Rowe, P. G. (1992). Design thinking. Cambridge, US: MIT Press. ˆ Rufinoni, M. R. (2002). Novos e velhos desafios no ensino de projeto arquitetonico: caminhos para a ˆncia crı´tica (Vol. 4, pp. 11–15). Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sinergia (CEFETSP). ˜ formaca de uma conscie ¸ ˜o Runco, M. A. (2004). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 657–687. Salama, A. (1995). New trends in architectural education. Cairo, Egypt: The Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop. ¨ Schon, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York, US: Basic Books. Siqueira, J. (2007). Ferramentas de Criatividade. Accessed in: April 2007 http://criatividade.wordpress. com[. Snodgrass, A., & Coyne, R. (2006). Interpretation in architecture: Design as a way of thinking. London, UK: Routledge. Sternberg, R. J. (1991) A theory of creativity. In Proceedings of XIV ISPA Colloquium. Braga, Portugal. Suh, N. P. (1990). The principles of design. New York: Oxford University Press. Teeravarunyou, S., Storkerson, P., Jeamsinkul, C., & Sawasdichai, N. (2002). Annotated theory and practice in design—list. Visible Language, 36(2), 134–155. UNESCO/UIA. (2005) Charter for architectural education. In http://www.uia-architectes.org/image/PDF/ CHARTES/CHART_ANG.pdf. Accessed 26 April/09. van der Lugt, R. (2005). How sketching can affect the idea generation process in design group meetings. Design Studies, 26(2), 101–122.
123
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Relationship Between Problemsolving and Creativity Essay
  • support the creativity of children and young people Essay
  • creativity principles Essay
  • Creativity Essay
  • Creativity Essay
  • Creativity and Innovation Essay
  • creativity at workplace Essay
  • Essay about creativity and innovation

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free