Computer Memory

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Topics: Flash memory
A. VOLATILE MEMORY
Volatile memory, also known as volatile storage, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information, unlike non-volatile memory which does not require a maintained power supply. It has been less popularly known as term Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. Since real capacitors leak charge, the information eventually fades unless the capacitor charge is refreshed periodically. Because of this refresh requirement, it is a dynamic memory as opposed to SRAM and other static memory.
The main memory (the "RAM") in personal computers is Dynamic RAM (DRAM), as is the "RAM" of home game consoles (PlayStation, Xbox 360 and Wii), laptop, notebook and workstation computers.
Here are the types of volatile memory:
• DRAM
The advantage of DRAM is its structural simplicity: only one transistor and a capacitor are required per bit, compared to six transistors in SRAM. This allows DRAM to reach very high density. Unlike flash memory, it is volatile memory (cf. non-volatile memory), since it loses its data when power is removed. The transistors and capacitors used are extremely small—millions can fit on a single memory chip.

• DDR SDRAM
Double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory (DDR SDRAM) is a class of memory integrated circuits used in computers.
Compared to single data rate (SDR) SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals. Implementations often have to use schemes such as phase-locked loops and self-calibration to reach the required timing accuracy.The interface uses double pumping (transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal) to lower the clock frequency. One advantage of keeping the clock frequency down is that it reduces the signal integrity requirements on the circuit

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