Regarding to the notes, Common beliefs may treats as the same the way to support some evaluative statement, that never be used to argue the accuracy of most statements of verification. Those fallacies are called to opinion, to belief, and to popular beliefs also the feeling of people. Such as the faith or the religion what they belief, or some “facts” that we see as common sense. For example, The world is round, or thermal expansion and contraction. Moreover, some slogan may become common belief too. Just like “Never Give Up” or “treasure our life”. Since humans behave by following their personal beliefs and common sense. No matter what cultural background people came from, common sense will be very similar between people and person. Also the common sense what people beliefs are often wrong. Maybe it as supported by everyone, so that no one will believe it’s wrong.
Common sense, as defined by the some website, is innate rational thinking that occurs organically in rational humans. Common sense involves thinking and problem-solving skills developed from intuition, natural logic and the human ability to observe events and absorb information and lessons from them. These observations allow you to learn from experience and thus to hone and implement sound judgment. You use common sense to approach and attempt to solve problems in day-to-day life. Every human being gains and uses common sense to apply impartial, unbiased and responsible logical decisions. Common sense is something that comes to you naturally, its like and instinct, critical thinking is when you take a question or a problem and analyze every aspect of it. Common sense is dependent of the culture and tradition.
Critical thinking occurs when a person deliberately examines a situation based on his own knowledge and philosophies. Critical thinking involves judging a situation based on studied reasoning, where the person intentionally and consciously focuses on a subject. The quality of critical thinking is based on how sound the eventual judgment of a situation is. Critical thinking allows for planning, calculating, investigating and explaining; you use it for situations that require a larger degree of concentration and deliberation. Critical Thinking is 'rational optimization' of 'rational' aspects. It provides a 'rational' optimum, for instance not considering most emotional aspects. And it often ignores most cultural differences. Albert Einstein famously said "Common Sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen." The purpose of Common Sense is to enable one to function "well" inside the society - that is, its purpose is to provide a framework for making the "proper" decision when faced with a commonly occurring problem or issue.
As I mentioned before, common sense is, by definition, a sound conclusion. Critical thinking, on the other hand, can be either sound or unsound. Mistakes in logic can be made through critical thinking. Critics are not always right, and their conclusions can be colored by their own prejudices. The differences between common sense and critical thinking are lies in the levels of awareness at which both consciousness and critical thinking operate. Critical thinking always occurs at a conscious level, whereas common sense occurs on a liminal level of thought, which the Plus Roots website calls "a workaday consciousness." Although critical thinking and common sense require different levels of awareness and consciousness to operate, both methods are rational in their arguments. Both must adhere to some logical form and logical requirements.
How about common beliefs? Actually is quite easy to explain. Give as example, When we are uncertain about something, we turn to other people and assume they know what they are doing. We do the same with beliefs. The more other people believe something, the more likely we will be to accept that it is true. The point is that using popular opinions to support a claim that must be verified in another manner is a fallacious appeal to common belief. Supporting an evaluative statement with factual evidence would be just as fallacious, but much less common. We might call that an appeal to plausible facts.
When the claim that most or many people in general or of a particular group accept a belief as true is presented as evidence for the claim. Accepting another person’s belief, or many people’s beliefs, without demanding evidence as to why that person accepts the belief, is lazy thinking and a dangerous way to accept information. Here is an example from the Internet and survey. Up until the late 16th century, most people believed that the earth was the center of the universe. This, of course, is not true. The article explaining that the geocentric model was observation is limited and faith based, but most who accepted the model did so based on the common and accepted belief of the time, not on their own observations, calculations, and or reasoning. It was people like Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler, who refused to appeal to the common belief and uncovered a truth not obvious to the rest of humanity.
Sometimes there are good reasons to think that the common belief was held by people who do have good evidence for believing. For instance, if virtually all of earth scientists accept that the universe is approximately 13.7 billion years old, it is wise to believe them because they will be able to present objective and empirical evidence as to why they believe. Maybe we can say, is history has shown that those who break away from the common beliefs are the ones who change the course of history.
Common sense is not like instinct, and can be highly prejudiced. Say its local optimization, and different even within a culture. Common Sense is also a "dictator" of action, while Critical Thinking is an "adviser" of action: Common Sense tells you what to do in a situation, while Critical Thinking informs you of the consequences of a range of actions. Last but not least, we may treat a fallacy is an error in reasoning. That is, it is a piece of bad logic. Just as it is a good idea to avoid eating bad food, it is also a rather good idea to avoid bad reasoning. Unfortunately, bad reasoning is all too common—it pours out of the television and infests the web like an army of venomous spiders. Perhaps even worse than the fallacies inflicted from the outside are self-inflicted fallacies. These can lead people to make poor decisions about matters great and small. So do common sense and beliefs. Bibliography
Micheal LaBossiere (2012)[ 76 Fallacies ] Kindle Edition
S. Morris Engel (1994)[ With Good Reason- An Introduction to Informal Fallacies] Kindle Edition
Link: Studymode -
Logical fallacies - <http://www.logicalfallacies.info/>