top-rated free essay

Cellular Respiration Questions

By tigerman97 Aug 30, 2013 583 Words
Benjamin Tiger1/16/12
Cellular Respiration Questions

1.
Aerobic pathways require oxygen, while anaerobic pathways don't.

Anaerobic pathways only require the process of glycolysis to produce energy. Anaerobic pathways are found outside the mitochondria within the cytoplasm of the cell, with a low efficiency of 4%. These pathways require glucose, ATP, adolase, fructokinase, dehydrogenase, and NAD+. Out of one glucose molecule, major products include two net ATP, two NADH, and two pyruvate molecules. The latter can be produced without the use of an aerobic process, such as the Krebs cycle. The two pyruvates eventually get produced into either the painful lactic acid, or ethyl alcohol (fermentation).

Aerobic pathways require oxygen to produce energy. Aerobic pathways can be found inside the mitochondria, and are 40% efficient, much more efficient than anaerobic pathways. Aerobic pathways include the Krebs cycle and the election transport chain. The input of aerobic pathways include glucose, oxygen, NAD+, and the same enzymes that anaerobic pathways need. The difference is that aerobic pathways can produce a max of 36 ATP, which is way more efficient that anaerobic pathways. Aerobic pathways also produce FADH2, which is NADH's “backup”. They also produce CO2, which is expelled from our body by gas respiration in our lungs. It is clear why our bodies choose aerobic pathways over anaerobic pathways.

2.
The general redox reaction is XH2 + NAD+ → X + NADH + H+ . The purpose of transferring electrons is to produce NADH, which will be used in the electron transport chain to ship hydrogen ions onto the other side of the cristae membrane, to make a concentration gradient that will eventually be used to produce ATP. These redox reactions occur in almost all steps of cellular respiration, including glycolysis, “chemical grooming”, and the Krebs cycle. Without NADH produced, the electron transport chain couldn't function, which would jeopardize aerobic respiration entirely. This transfer of electrons is a biological necessity.

3.
Chemiosmosis is the process of producing ATP in the electron transport chain, by runnning hydrogen ions across ATP synthase, that spins and cranks out ATP molecules from ADPs and phosphate groups. Chemiosmosis takes effect inside the mitochondria. Chemiosmosis is the long-term investment, almost like a retirement fund. ATP isn't automatically produced in this process, as it is in substrate level phosphorylation (SLP). Instead, when the time comes, a massive amount of ATPs are produced by this process. The major advantage of chemiosmosis is that more ATPs are produced per glucose molecule than SLP. The downfall of chemiosmosis is that it isn't as rapid of a process as is SLP, and that oxygen is required for it to function.

SLP is the process of producing ATP anaerobically without the use of the electron transport chain, such as the ATP produced in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. SLP is a short-term investment, like a checking account. It takes place outside the mitochondria, in the cytoplasm. The pros of SLP include the fact that ATP is easily, rapidly produced, and that no oxygen is required for SLP to function. The cons include the fact that the level of ATP produced by SLP is substantially lower than chemiosmosis. From a single glucose molecule, two net ATPs in glycolysis and two ATPs in the citric acid cycle are produced, making a total of four ATP molecules. This amount of ATPs is not enough to meet the energy needs of most organisms. As said before, this is why our bodies mostly use aerobic pathways, and not anaerobic pathways. Efficiency is key!

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Cellular Respiration

    ...Name________Darrien Bolding_____________ Date________________ Cellular Respiration Webquest Worksheet (from: http://zunal.com/webquest.php?user=19049) Directions: Answer in your own words behind or under the questions. Do not copy and paste unless told to do so and then use quotes. Part I. Process Overview ...

    Read More
  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

    ...constant * 2nd Law of Thermodynamics- energy transfer results in increase entropy (less organization!!) * Adenosine is bonded to 3 phosphates 2. When cell needs energy… it splits off that 3rd P 3. Energy is released, ADP + P is formed, cell uses that energy for whatever it needs 4. Destination of the broken Phosphate??- Us...

    Read More
  • Mitochondria: Cellular Respiration and Inner Membrane

    ...Mitochondria Mitochondria are responsible for energy production. They are also the responsible location for which respiration takes place. Mitochondria contain enzymes that help convert food material into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which can be used directly by the cell as an energy source. Mitochondria tend to be concentrated near c...

    Read More
  • A Study of Cellular Respiration and Gas Production in Peas

    ...A Study of Cellular Respiration & Gas Production in Peas We conducted this lab in order to determine the relationship between gas production and the cellular respiration rate between germinating peas and dormant peas. Cellular respiration is the procedure of changing the chemical energy of organic molecules into a form of energy that can ...

    Read More
  • Comparison & Contrast between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

    ...Cells of all organisms are capable in acquiring the energy necessary to fuel chemical reactions for growth, repair, survival, and reproduction. Photosynthesis & cellular respiration are the main pathways of energy flow in living things. Photosynthesis is a process by which plants and some other organisms convert, light energy from the sun, CO2 f...

    Read More
  • Biology - Cell Respiration

    ...TOPIC 3.7 + 8.1: CELL RESPIRATION 3.7.1 Define cell respiration. Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP (adenosine triphosphates). 3.7.2 State that, in cell respiration, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down by glycolysis into pyruvate, with a small yield of ATP. Glycolysis ...

    Read More
  • Cellular Respiration

    ...|AP Cellular Respiration Lab Report | |Lab #3 | | ...

    Read More
  • Cellular Respiration

    ...glucose gets broken down into 2 pyruvates 12.How many ATPs are consumed in the Krebs cycle? none 13. In total, how many ATPs are produced after one round of the Krebs cycle? 1 per cycle x 2 14.What is the net production of ATP molecules yielded from one round of the Krebs cycle? 1 per cycle 15. What two energy carriers are yielded d...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.