1. List the three roles of ATP in muscle contraction:
1.Energize the power stroke of the myosin cross bridge.
2.Disconnecting the myosin head from the binding site on actin at the conclusion of a power stroke. 3.Energizing the calcium ion pump
2. The potential energy in ATP is released when the terminal high-energy bond is broken by a process called
Write the end products of this process: ATP (+ H2O) ______ADP___________
3. Rebuilding ADP into ATP with a new source of energy is carried out by a process called Dehydration synthesis. Write the equation for this process: ________ADP__________ ATP (+ H2O)
4. List the three processes used to synthesize additional ATP when ATP supplies are low:
1. 1.Hydrolysis of creatine phosphate
3.The Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
5. An immediate source of energy is _____ creatine phosphate________________ (CP), but the supplies are limited and rapidly depleted.
One molecule of CP produces __one_ ATP.
6. Glucose is a major source of energy for synthesizing ATP. List the two sources of glucose:
1. .Glucose enters the muscle cell directly from the blood.
2.Glucose is produced by hydrolysis of glycogen stored in the muscle cell. 7. ____Glycolysis_________ is the process that breaks down glucose.
Name two products of the breakdown of glucose:
1 Two ATP molecules
If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to ___lactic_______ acid, which is the end product of _________anaerobic________ respiration.
8. If oxygen is available, the process is known as ____aerobic__________ respiration.
Name two sources of oxygen:
The aerobic pathway consists of glycolysis + ________________ + ___________________. The net result of one glucose molecule is ___ ATP.
9. The process of restoring the depleted energy reserves after exercise is called _________________.
Name four processes that occur during this time: