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Chapter 7

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Woodly Biennescar

Chapter 7
Interpret the role of electrons, electron carriers, and ATP in energy metabolism
Electron carriers are used for soluble that moves electron from one molecule to another.
Electron aids in the gradual, stepwise release of the energy from oxidation, rather than rapid combustion.
ATP power the activities that requires work --- one of the most which is movement.
Explain the purpose of oxygen in respiration
Without oxygen, cellular respiration could not occur because oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport system. The electron transport system would therefore not be available.
Describe the structure of mitochondria
A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins. The two membranes, however, have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. There is the outer mitochondrial membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner mitochondrial membrane, the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane).
Summarize the steps and outcomes of glycolysis
In glycolysis, glucose (sugar) is "burned" in the presence of oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP. Carbon dioxide and water are they by-products.
Describe the steps of the Krebs cycle and its outcomes
The pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis contain a lot of energy in the bonds between their molecules. In order to use that energy, the cell must convert it into the form of ATP. To do so, pyruvate molecules are processed through the Kreb Cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle.
Illustrate the purpose of the electron transport chain, where those electrons come from and where do they go at the end.
To simplify, all the electron transport chain does is to use electrons (contained in a molecule which carries electrons, like NADH) to power proteins that shoot hydrogen ions out of the inner cell membrane of the mitochondria into the outer cell membrane of the mitochondria.
These hydrogen ions enter back into a different protein called ATP synthase, which uses the energy from these hydrogen ions to turn ADP into ATP, which our body uses to perform energy-related tasks
Contrasts the two mechanisms for producing ATP and their relative efficiency.
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during Glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle and involves the physical addition of a free phosphate to ADP to form ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation, on the other hand, takes place along the electron transport chain, where ATP is synthesized indirectly from the creation of a proton gradient and the movement of these protons back accross the membrane through the protein channel, ATP synthase. As the protons pass through, ATP is created.
Distinguish the process and the outcomes between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration is the process that takes place in presence of oxygen. Aerobic respiration is the metabolic process that involves break down of fuel molecules to obtain bio-chemical energy and has oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Fuel molecules commonly used by cells in aerobic respiration are glucose, amino acids and fatty acids.
The process of anaerobic respiration is relatively less energy yielding as compared to the aerobic respiration process. During the alcoholic fermentation or the anaerobic respiration two molecules of ATP (energy) are produced. For every molecule of glucose used in the reaction. Similarly for the lactate fermentation 2 molecules of ATP are produced for every molecule of glucose used. Thus anaerobic respiration breaks down one glucose molecule to obtain two units of the energy storing ATP molecules.

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