The Brownian movement is random movement of microscopic particles suspended in a fluid, caused by bombardment of the particles by molecules of the fluid. First observed in 1827, it provided strong evidence in support of the kinetic theory of molecules. The diffusion is a form of Brownian movement, or we can say The Brownian movement leads to diffusion in three different types, where the particles move from high concentration to low concentration area, which are hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic.
2- What was the role of the indicators (Lugol’s and Benedict’s solutions) used in the cell model experiment? Explain your answer using results you obtained from the cell model experiment.
Lugol's solution is a solution of elemental iodine and potassium iodide in water, and it’s been used in this experiment as a reagent for starch detection. Benedict's reagent has been used as a test for the presence of reducing sugar, which include lactose and maltose.
3- Explain the medical importance of tonicity. Think about dialysis and IVs.
Since tonicity is only influenced by solutes that cannot cross the membrane but it can exert, Solutes will be able to freely cross the membrane and do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane. Also, water will flow from a hypotonic solution to hypertonic.
4- Explain the direction of osmosis and effects of tonicity (hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic) in plant and animal cells. Use lab results in your explanation.
If a cell is placed in an isotonic solution, the cell will maintain its normal volume because no osmotic pressure is occurred. A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solutes than the interior of the cell. For that reason, a hypotonic solution will cause water to flow into the cell, as the concentration of solutes inside of the cell is higher. In a hypertonic solution, the solutes