Worksheet #1: Introduction to Ionic Bonds
The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the properties of matter. The four major types of bonds are:
Intermolecular (van der Waals) forces
The ionic bond is formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between metals and nonmetals. Remember that metal atoms lose one or more valence electrons in order to achieve a stable electron arrangement. When a metal atom loses electrons it forms a positive ion or cation. When nonmetals react they gain one or more electrons to reach a stable electron arrangement. When a nonmetal atom gains one or more electrons it forms a negative ion or anion. The metal cations donate electrons to the nonmetal anions so they stick together in an ionic compound. This means that ionic bonds are formed by the complete transfer of one or more electrons.
A structure with its particles arranged in a regular repeating pattern is called a crystal. Because opposite charges attract and like charges repel, the ions in an ionic compound stack up in a regular repeating pattern called a crystal lattice. The positive ions are pushed away from other positive ions and attracted to negative ions so this produces a regular arrangement of particles where each ion is surrounded by ions of the opposite charge. Each ion in the crystal has a strong electrical attraction to its oppositely charged neighbors so the whole crystal holds together as one giant unit. We have no individual molecules in ionic compounds, just the regular stacking of positive and negative ions.
1. Define the following terms:
a) ionic bond –
b) cation –
c) anion –
d) crystal –
2. What are the smallest units of an ionic bond?
At room temperature ionic compounds are high melting point solids. They are usually white except for compounds of the transition metals that may be colored. They are brittle (break easily). They do not conduct electricity as solids, but do conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water.
3. List several properties of ionic compounds:
4. When can electricity to be conducted in an ionic bond?
Worksheet #2: Reviewing Lewis Dot Diagrams
Write the Lewis Dot Diagrams for the following:
Write the Lewis Dot Diagrams for:
How would you describe (in general) the Lewis Dot Diagram for:
a) a cation?
b) an anion?
What type of bonding would you expect in a compound that contains a metal and a nonmetal?
Worksheet #3: Drawing Ionic Bonds
Remember: Ionic bonds form between POSITIVE IONS and NEGATIVE IONS. Ionic bonding is when one of the atoms is donating an electron(s) (the cation) and one of atoms is accepting an electron(s) (the anion). The electrons are not shared, the anion gains an electron(s) to achieve a full valence and the cation loses an electron(s) to achieve a full valence.
Diagram the ionic bonding process from neutral atoms to ions showing the valence electrons and indicating with arrows the direction in which the electrons are going. Write your final answer in the box.
Ex: sodium nitride (Na3N)
1. sodium chloride (NaCl)
5. potassium fluoride (KF)
2. barium oxide (BaO)
6. sodium oxide (Na2O)...
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