Biology

Topics: Protein, Adenosine triphosphate, Cell Pages: 7 (2208 words) Published: April 20, 2014
Bio 93 Review Sheet:

1.Understand all the THEMES presented in the introductory lecture (lec 1). 2.What is an open system? Energy in and out, comes in and leaves as heat 3.What are the 4 most important elements in the human body? C, O, N, H 4.Draw the periodic square for Helium. How many valence electrons does it have? How do you figure this out using the periodic table? Two valence e-, 23He, all the way right full shell only holds two electrons

5.What is an isotope? How are they used? Different number of neutrons, used in biological research (radioactive) 6.Describe the 4 main types of bonds. Put them in order from strongest to weakest. Covalent-electrons are shared between the atoms, can be polar or nonpolar depending on the difference in electronegativity Ionic- one atom takes an e- from another, form anions and cations Hydrogen- between H and O, N or F, because electronegativity and unpaired e- Vanderwaals- between all molecules, movement of e- causing slight change in polarity 7.List the important features of water. Cohesion, hydrogen bonds, float as ice, best solvent, high specific heat 8.If you add more H+ ions to a solution, will it become more acidic or basic? If you add OH- to a solution, will it become more acidic or basic? more acidic, more basic 9.Why do hydrocarbons release a large amount of energy when they react? Breaking a covalent bond which releases a lot of energy 10.What are the functional groups? Name their structure and properties. Keep in mind how their properties will affect how they interact with other molecules. 11.How do you build a polymer? How do you breakdown a polymer? Build by dehydration from monomers and take out wather, break down by hydrolysis add water to form monomers 12.Know the 4 major macromolecules. Here are some important things you should know from each category. a.Carbohydrates- Glucose, alpha-glucose-starch, beta-glucose-cellulose, monomer: monosaccharides, polymer: polysaccharises, linkage: glycosidic linkage b.Lipids- structure and bonds of fatty acids, saturated vs. unsaturated, lipid bilayer, steroids Saturated- full of single carbon bonds, solid room temp

Unsaturated- has double C bonds, causes kink, makes membrane more fluid, monomer: fatty acids, polymer: triacylglycerols, linkage: ester linkages c.Proteins- Protein functions, basic amino acid structure, polar vs. nonpolar amino acids, protein structures Monomer: amino acid, polymer: polypeptides, linkages: peptide bonds, Primary structure: linear sequence, Secondary: helices or beta sheets, by hydrogen bonds Tertiary: helices and beta sheets folded, interactions of R groups (hydrogen, ionic, hydrophobid, vanderwaals) covalent bonds (disulfide bridges) Quarternary: multiple tertiarys d.Nucleic Acids- Central Dogma, DNA vs. RNA, base pairs (who pairs with who) C-G A-T or A-U, Structure of DNA double helix, H bond between bases, antiparallel Nucleotide: phosphate, base and sugar

Nucleoside: base and sugar
Bases: Purines- G and A- two ring, Pyrimidines- C, T and U- single ring DNA: doesn’t have O, two halves
RNA: has O, single sided
--DNA>transcription>RNA>rimosome>translation>protein—
Monomer: nucleotides, polymer: polynucleotides, linkage: phosphodiester linkage

Structure: the phosphate group is attached to the 5 carbon and the nitrogenous base is connected to the 1 carbon 13.Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic.
Eukaryote- nucleus, membrane bound organelles,
Prokaryote- no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles
14.Plasma membrane
a.Fluid mosaic model- constantly moving, changing
b.How temperature affects the membrane and what the cell does to regulate this. Being unsaturated regulates . chlostertol fluid buffer c.Membrane proteins and their functions-
15.Osmosis
a.Isotonic the solute concentration is the same in and out
b.Hypertonic solution has more concentration to cell, causes shriveling c.Hypotonic solution has less concentration to cell, causes lysing 16.Transport
a....
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