5. Why do you think stop and start codon signals are necessary for protein synthesis?
These are necessary because start codons tells the tRNA to begin translating the codons into proteins and stop codons tell the tRNA to stop translating codons into proteins. They are essential in the process of producing proteins.
6. Describe the processes of transcription and translation in your own words, based on what you have observed in the Gizmo.
Transcription: Protein synthesis process starts in the nucleus where DNA is found, which is a double chain of sugars and phosphates that are joined by pairs of nucleic acids. These are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. For replication, DNA is unzipped by the enzyme and it leaves a single nucleotide chain, which is then copied. RNA polymerase then reads the DNA strand and grabs a single stand of mRNA. This single strand leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm inside the ribosomes.
Translation: tRNA brings the amino acid and anticodon which corresponds to the first (start) codon and to each codon. At the same time the ribosome moves down the mRNA strand. Then, the final mRNA codon (stop codon) is read and the amino acid chain is released creating a protein.
What amino acids do the following codons code for?
AUG: Methionine (Start codon)
UAG: Stop codon
Apply: Suppose you wanted a protein that consists of the amino acid sequence methionine, asparagine, valine, and histidine. Give an mRNA sequence that would code for this protein.
How do genes determine the traits of an organism? Explain in detail.
Genes contain all the information of the DNA of an organism. Genes are fractions of a DNA which can be inherited in reproduction. New organisms share a group of genes which come from the parent gametes. All the inherited genes form a new DNA chain. Genes determine all the physical details of an