DNA, RNA structure and function
Why are multiple copies of tRNA and rRNA genes needed? a. These RNAs are destroyed very rapidly. b. These RNAs are very stable. c. These RNAs are needed in large amounts. d. These RNAs do not benefit from the extra amplification step that occurs for protein-encoding genes. e. c and d
If you treat mitotic chromosomes with solutions that extract histones, what happens? a. The chromosomes become more condensed. b. The DNA separates into two single strands instead of remaining as a double helix. c. Histone-free DNA can be seen to extend outward as loops from a protein scaffold. d. The chromosomes precipitate. e. The chromosomes become …show more content…
the DaVinci code b. the chemiosmotic hypothesis c. the histone code d. the genetic code e. the endosymbiotic hypothesis
For DNA structure, more compact structures are based upon simpler structures. Explain what this means.
Which type of replication results in 2 duplexes made of one parental strand and one newly synthesized strand? a. semiconservative replication b. conservative replication c. dispersive replication d. incisive replication e. reservative replication
In eucaryotes replication moves out from the origin in ________ directions and is said to be ________. a. opposite, unidirectional b. opposite, bidirectional c. three, bidirectional d. unique, unidirectional e. common, bidirectional
Some DNAs are circular and some are linear. How does this fact affect DNA synthesis?
Which eukaryotic RNA polymerase synthesizes mRNAs and most small nuclear RNAs? a. RNA polymerase I b. RNA polymerase II c. RNA polymerase III d. RNA polymerase IV e. RNA polymerase …show more content…
-different DNA polymerases are found in the nucleus and organelles such as the mitochondrian or chloroplast.
Is the structure of chromatin the same everywhere? Justify your answer. -describe basic structure -give examples that illustrate differences and why.
Is the genetic code universal? -what is the genetic code? - give examples that illustrate differences and why.
What is the epigenome and how does this concept relate to gene expression? -DNA modifications (methylation) that influence phenotype -can relate methylation levels to the expression of individual genes, regions (silencing, heterochomatinization) and chromosomes (Barr bodies)
How to Answer A LA questions:
“Proteins are often modified AFTER translation. Give examples (3) of these processes. Include in you answer a reason for the modification or its role.”
To answer break down into 3 SA questions.(if I ask for 4, do four!)
Processing/targeting: Removal of signal peptide associated with correct translocation. Example Regulation: Phosphorylation of amino acid with –OH ( or thr or ser or tyr) leads to activation of protein kinase in a signal