BEGE 102 Completed

Topics: International Phonetic Alphabet, Stress, Syllable Pages: 8 (1867 words) Published: March 19, 2015

PHONE NUMBER : +918961545406 -X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X- 1. Write short notes on the following:
i. Organs Of Speech- The various organs which are involved in the production of speech sound are called speech organs or articulators.. The study of speech organs helps to determine the role of each organ in the production of speech sound. Articulators are of two types: passive articulators and active articulators. Passive articulators remain static during the articulation of sound. Upper lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, and pharynx wall are passive articulators. Active articulators move relative to these passive articulators to produce various speech sounds, in different manners. The most important active articulator is the tongue. The lower lip is other active articulator. But glottis is not active articulator because it is only a space between vocal folds. ii. Semi-Vowels of English- A vowel-like sound that acts like a consonant, in that it serves the same function in a syllable carrying the same amount of prominence as a consonant relative to a true vowel. Semivowels, by definition, contrast with vowels by being non-syllabic. In addition, they are usually shorter than vowels. Nevertheless, semivowels may be phonemically equivalent with vowels. The w sound and y sound are the only two semi-vowels (also commonly called glides) in English. These sounds can be created with slightly greater restriction in the vocal tract than vowels, but less restriction than most other consonants. iii. Stress In English- Stress, in English, means the degree of force put on a part of a word, making it seem stronger than other parts. The words consisting of three or more syllables often have instances when two syllables stand out from the rest. One of them has main or primary stress, and other has secondary stress. Stress is typically signaled by such properties as increased loudness and vowel length, full articulation of the vowel, and changes in pitch. The stress placed on syllables within words is called word stress or lexical stress. The stress placed on words within sentences is called sentence stress or prosodic stress. iv. Content Words And Grammatical Words- Content words are words that carry the content or the meaning of a sentence, and include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs. Content words are open class words, meaning that new content words can be added to the lexicon easily. Grammatical words are words that have little lexical meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relations with other words in a sentence. They signal the structural relationships that words have to one another and are the glue that holds sentences together. Thus, they serve as important elements to the structures of sentences. Function words might be prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, grammatical articles or particles, all of which belong to the group of closed-class words. 2a. What are diphthongs? How are they different from pure vowels? Discuss, giving examples.  Vowel is a single sound of a particular type - it is an open sound which is made with free passage of breath. For example the sound of “ah...” a doctor asks you to make when examining your throat. Articulation of a vowel is not accompanied by any closure or narrowing in the speech tract which would prevent the escape of the air stream through the mouth. In English language sounds of vowels are...
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