Aurangzeb

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Most would agree that Aurangzeb was incredibly brave, a fine general, a good administrator and a generous ruler. He was also extremely devout and lived a simple, pure life, unlike many of his nobles.
Aurangzeb inherited a court which, for over 50 years, had been the centre of wealth and luxury.
Many nobles had forgotten Islamic principals in their search for pleasure and no longer wished to participate in the often harsh military campaigns. Aurangzeb decided that the state must return to the more traditional, religious way of life.
Financial reforms * Aurangzeb abolished transport duties and the tax on goods brought into cities for sale. Thus pleased everyone but was later to have a serious effect on the income of the state. * He abolished taxes which had been levied for centuries because they did not accord with Islamic law. * He re-imposed the JIZYA tax on the Hindus, although it had not been collected for over a century. The Hindus were angry for having to pay. * Custom duties were re-imposed in 1665 at 5% for Hindus and 2.5% for Muslims many Hindus converted to Islam because of this.
Religious reforms
Aurangzeb decided that his empire should be run according to Islamic teachings.

* He reinforced Islamic laws against alcohol and gambling and forbade the planting of cannabis (a type of drug). * He appointed officials in all the major cities. They were responsible for overseas the implementation of the laws and the behaviour of the people. * He banned all music at the court, except for the royal band. He also discouraged poetry, festivals and painting, unless it was Arabic calligraphy. * He encouraged Islamic scholars and build many schools and colleges. * He banned the traditional appearance of the emperor to the public. * He himself performed all his religious duties and copied the Quran in his own handwriting twice. * A few Hindu temples and some Hindu schools were closed down.

Reasons for the collapse of

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