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Assessment of Foreign Language Learning in the SEcondary School Classroom

By Peter-Hone Oct 14, 2014 22427 Words
Moving from Theory to Practice:
Proposals for Beginning to Work with
Formative Assessment in the
Foreign Language Classroom.

Peter Hone
Universitat Pompeu Fabra – Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Master in Teacher Training for Compulsory Secondary Education, Baccalaureate, Trade Schools and Language Schools – English Specialisation Teaching Practice: Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès, Sitges

Mentor: Emigdi Subirats
Tutor: Àngels Oliva

Draft Two
Thursday 19th May
2011
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CONTENTS
1

Introduction .................................................................................. 5 1.1
1.2

2

General Presentation of the Paper ............................................................. 5 Introduction to the school ........................................................................... 7

Applicable Theories and the Legal Framework ......................... 8 2.1

Contextualising the Project: within the School ............................................ 8

2.2 Contextualising the Project: within the corresponding Theoretical, Legal and Curricular Frameworks.................................................................................. 8

3
4

From Theory to Methodology.....................................................14 From Methodology to Practice...................................................17 4.1

Testing the Model ..................................................................................... 17

4.2

Structuring the Process ............................................................................ 19

4.3

Adapting the Model .................................................................................. 20

4.4

Developing the Teaching Units ................................................................ 22

4.5

The Learning from the Classes ................................................................ 23

4.5.1
4.5.2

Assessing the use of L3 in pair and group work ................................ 23

4.5.3

Promoting dialogue ............................................................................ 23

4.5.4

5

Scaffolding ......................................................................................... 23

Reflective journals ............................................................................. 25

Conclusions ................................................................................27 5.1
5.2

Implications and Consequences .............................................................. 28

5.3

Extending the Model................................................................................. 29

5.4

6

On Affective Formative Assessment ........................................................ 27

Hope for the Future! ................................................................................. 30

Appendix .....................................................................................31 6.1

l‟Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès ............................................................... 31

6.1.1 Assessment
of
the
Goals
and
Organization
of
l‟Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès ..................................................................... 31 6.1.2

Description of the Staff and the Students .......................................... 31

6.1.3

Some tentative Conclusions .............................................................. 34

6.1.4 ACORD QUADRIENNAL D‟APLICACIÓ DEL PLA ESTRATÈGIC
PER A LA MILLORA DE LA QUALITAT DEL SERVEI EDUCATIU QUE
PRESTA DURANT EL PERÍODE 2010-2014 ................................................ 36 3

6.1.5

Projecte Lingüístic de Centre ............................................................. 53

6.1.6

: Pla de millora del servei de mediació i convivència ......................... 57

6.1.7

Objectius ............................................................................................ 58

6.1.8

Origen (*) ........................................................................................... 58

6.2
6.3

Detailed Action-oriented descriptors of Lingualevel ................................. 80

6.4

7

Teaching Units ......................................................................................... 61 Eina de sensibilització .............................................................................. 81

BIBLIOGRAFIA ............................................................................82

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1

Introduction

1.1 General Presentation of the Paper
This paper seeks to draw together what I have learnt and observed during the different theoretical and practical stages of this Master‟s course for future teachers. Whilst I was delighted and stimulated by the use of the Constructivist paradigm as a common, guiding thread throughout the theoretical components of the course I found a noticeable gap with the practical component. So, although the tone of this paper may at first sight appear to be critical of current practice, it in fact seeks to discuss how to deal with the broader issues of the challenges of trying to bring about change and development that I, as a future teacher, will undoubtedly have to face: a reflection on how to apply proven, successful theoretical models in the classroom.

My initial questioning and thinking for this paper was based on the classes that I had observed during my practicum at IES Benaprès where I had witnessed two teachers with radically different teaching styles. One taught through grammar and translation, whilst the other used a communicative approach. However both used similar grammar-based exam formats to test their students. At first this led me to wonder if the rising need for accountability was affecting the transition from grammar-based, teacher-centred English classes to more communicative studentcentred approaches in Catalan secondary school classrooms. After all grammar based exercises are easy to evaluate, but they constitute just one element of the communicative, constructivist inspired goals of the current secondary school curriculum.

My conversations with students seemed to indicate that the concept of passing or not passing is what, for them, defined the subject, not the learning process. Assessment was viewed as both the reason for the existence of the subject and the definer of its content. The students apparently felt that the curriculum is decided by the teacher or the book and that there is little or no discussion of the learning process: the teaching agenda is somewhat closed and predetermined.

“It is well known that anticipation of testing procedures has a backwash effect on learning”
Kohonen,1999 p 17

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So can we devise assessment methods that will encourage a more communicative, dialogue-driven approach in classrooms? Do we have effective methods for evaluating the “softer” skills that lie behind communicative approaches to foreign language teaching? What tools do we have that allow both teachers and students to assess and evaluate their own cognitive and metacognitive processes? By definition student-centred learning requires students to take charge of their learning and will inevitably lead towards more dialogic, communicative classes. A key factor here is the adoption of methodologies which make full use of the possibilities offered by working through key competences as described in the current curricular model:

“El currículum orientat a l‟adquisició de competències estableix que la finalitat de l‟educació obligatòria és aconseguir que els nois i les noies adquireixin les eines
necessàries per entendre el món i esdevinguin persones
capaces d‟intervenir activament i crítica en la societat plural, diversa i en canvi continu que els ha tocat viure. Un
currículum per competències significa ensenyar per aprendre i seguir aprenent al llarg de tota la vida. Esdevenir “competent” implica fer-se conscient que el procés d‟ensenyament i
d‟aprenentatge té un recorregut que va més enllà de
l‟escolaritat obligatòria.
Currículum Educació Secundària Obligatòria (2009) p 241

However, upon its introduction, such a massive shift in teaching paradigm must have represented an enormous challenge for the whole educational community and without adequate in-service training or support it would have been nigh on impossible to achieve. If we couple this with the historical lack of in-depth initial teacher training the task becomes even more ambitious.

“Teachers will not take up attractive sounding ideas, albeit based on extensive research, if these are presented as
general principles which leave entirely to them the task of
translating them into everyday practice […] What they need is a variety of living examples of implementation, by teachers
with whom they can identity […] and see concrete examples of what doing better means in practice.”
Black and William (1998) p 10

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So perhaps what we really need here are some clear, relevant easily applicable, practical examples coupled with a supportive training action that will allow teachers to feel sufficiently comfortable so that they can indulge in the risk-taking that accompanies paradigm shifts and the entailing changes.

1.2 Introduction to the school
The Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès was founded 32 years ago and was the first of the two state secondary schools in Sitges. It has a teaching staff of 67 and a student population of approximately 700: half of which study Compulsory Secondary Education, one quarter study Baccalaureate and one quarter study Vocational Training modules (FPGM & FPGS).

The school has embarked on an ambitious four year (2010-2014) plan for the strategic improvement of the quality of its educational services (See Appendix 1.4 PMQCE). The resulting contractual agreement with the Education Authorities has given new funding for working on the three key objectives which will include selfanalysis, adaptation and testing in accordance with the ISO 9001 quality certification programme.

The Students
The school is situated in a small friendly coastal town, an affluent, privileged environment (average income is 20% above the average for Catalonia). In general terms families are supportive and even over-protective of their children (as commented on by the Head of Studies), this is reflected in the school‟s social climate and the apparent absence of conflictive situations. However the SWOT analysis by the school‟s inspectors defines the third most important threat as being the increase in the number of problem families and the rise in the number of students receiving insufficient care or support at home. Threat number 7 is the lack of parental involvement: the action plan for the second strategic goal, “Improve social cohesion” seeks to improve the collaboration between the school and parents.

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2 Applicable Theories and the Legal Framework
2.1 Contextualising the Project: within the S chool
During my teaching practice at Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès, Sitges I have been extremely fortunate to have been able to have full access to the extensive documentation that forms the basis of the school‟s four year (2010-2014) plan for the strategic improvement of the quality of its educational services ( See Appendix 1.4 PMQCE). Thanks to the analytical documentation provided by the school I was able to approach the topic of this paper from my own observations, from those of the school‟s management team and its inspectors. I developed my perspective view in conjunction with a description and analysis of the students, staff and the school‟s PEC, PLC and RRI as part of my teaching practice portfolio, part of which I have included in Appendix 1 of this paper. This allowed me to align my proposals with the specific context of the school and its students most especially given the clearly detected opportunities for improvement in the teaching of foreign languages as expressed in point 4 of the PLC .

2.2 Contextualising the Project: within the corresponding
Theoretical, Legal and Curricular F rameworks
As I have commented at the beginning of this paper the coherent legal and theoretical frameworks for foreign language teaching in Catalan secondary schools combined with the academic content of this course provide an excellent starting point for the effective use of a constructivist paradigm in the context of emergent participatory foreign language teaching. Herewith I will discuss a small selection of what appear to me those elements that are most relevant and applicable to the subject in hand.

“If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, I would say this: the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows.
Ascertain this and teach him accordingly”
Ausubel, (1968) p 18

The constructivist paradigm assumes that what we learn depends on what we know; this is the starting point of significant learning. Accordingly teachers must find out about the prior knowledge of their students and adapt their teaching to best suit both their ZPDs and learning styles: just the right amount of challenge in the most easily learnt form.

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However, how the student encounters new knowledge will be decisive as to how significant their learning can be. According to Coll (2004) p 46 in order to promote significant learning Ausubel‟s proposal contained three decisive provisory factors:

1. The contents should be potentially significant from a logical point of view: they have to be well structured carriers of meaning.
2. The contents should be potentially significant from a psychological point of view: the students have to be able to interrelate the new material with pertinent schemes of knowledge, thus beginning to integrate the new knowledge into their personal meaning constructs.

3. That learners have a potentially favourable attitude towards revising or modifying their related schemes of knowledge and are willing to modify them.

“... cal cercar estratègies per compartir amb l‟alumnat el procés avaluador i fer-lo partícip i protagonista del seu
procés d‟aprenentatge, i per compartir amb la resta del
professorat i les famílies la coherència dels criteris
d‟avaluació aplicats en les disciplines o activitats escolars.” Direcció General de l‟Educació Bàsica i el Batxillerat (2010)

When Vygotsky first began to develop the notion of a Zone of Proximal Development it was in the context of his work on IQ testing and was apparently driven by his fundamental desire to help unleash young learners‟ potential (van der Veer & Valsiner 1991. p 337). His work as a tester led him to pre-empt Krashen‟s concept of scaffolding by intervening as an educator, giving his subjects just enough new knowledge, information or insight to be able to overcome challenges that theoretically were not within the scope of someone at their level of cognitive development. A tester unable to withhold as he observed his subjects struggling to progress, but sufficiently respectful to be able to tailor his interventions to the needs of each individual by helping them to realize their fuller potential through offerings of small points of support which would enable them to surmount their difficulties and make cognitive leaps. Surely the sought after catalytic function of many educators.

How can this be applied in a group of thirty secondary school students? How can we best attend to the diversity of their emotional needs and abilities? It seems only natural to look for complicity with the learners here, to challenge the 9

argument that large groups make participatory learning impossible and to question the nature of the teaching-learning process.
In addition to the core elements of the constructivist models (defined by Glaser (1991) p131 as “A process of constructing new knowledge on the basis of current knowledge” and by Resnick (1989) p2 “An intervention in an ongoing knowledge construction process.”) I decided to draw upon some of the reasoning behind Krashen‟s (1983) “Acquisition Learning Hypothesis” in conjunction with the pedagogical theory related to adolescent development I had been introduced to through the UOC module “The Development of Personality and Learning in Adolescence” in which Moreno (2009) p 60-81 develops the idea that intellectual development is influenced, if not determined by, people‟s social and cultural experiences.

If we are to be consistent in our constructivist approach, then we must take into account the symbolic organization of mind (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006) drawing on the notion of the representational, tool-like quality of language, its symbolic value which we use to communicate our emotions, needs and opinions, not only to the external world, but also, as Vygotsky suggested, as a vehicle for adapting and changing our thought processes. A means for effecting change both in the world around us and in ourselves, through the “Mediated Nature of Human Thinking.”

“[Language] recreates, reconstructs the whole structure of behaviour just like a technical tool recreates the entire system of labour operations”
Vygotsky, (1997)
As language is a tool that we use to represent our world through symbols there is a two directional process, a personalization that allows for and adapts to the individual‟s personal structuring and organizing of their internal and external realities. Drawing attention to the nature of this symbolic tool and discussing the implications of its functionality in our communicative processes could offer students a means of approximation to addressing their own language learning processes. If we accept then that symbolic activity‟s primordial function is social, then shouldn‟t language teaching take heed and accord corresponding emphasis to this social function, not only in classroom activities but also, by extension, in assessment?

If we acknowledge the core argument that language is social, then it is only natural that we should seek to facilitate, provoke and then make the maximum use of all genuine language opportunities in the classroom. As Clark states, language is a means to an end:

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“People cannot carry out joint activities without signalling each other, nor do they signal each other except in the course of joint activities. Language use –in its broad sense- is an essential ingredient in all joint activities”

Clark (1996) p 387.

If some of these joint activities are to become the centre of the classroom activities themselves, are we not generating opportunities for genuine communication and thus meeting the requirements of both Participatory Language Teaching and the Catalan Secondary School Curriculum?

“La competència comunicativa oral, la qual facilita, a través dels intercanvis amb els altres, adults o no, elaborar i expressar idees, opinions i sentiments, és a dir, la construcció del propi pensament …

A més, l‟ús reflexiu de la parla és l‟eina més eficaç per posar a prova els aprenentatges. L‟alumnat ha d‟assumir el paper d‟interlocutor atent i cooperatiu en situacions de comunicació, fet que l‟ajudarà a intervenir de forma competent en el seu entorn i a desenvolupar-se amb expressivitat i fluïdesa en una societat democràtica i participativa.”

Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament d‟Educació
Currículum Educació Secundària Obligatòria (2009) p 36
The learning process has to be based on the inclusion of both teachers and students in the active construction of meaning through communication, not in the passive reception from the environment or the teacher (Robinson 1999, p7-16: Alonso Tapia 2001 p 6-29). The co-construction of shared meaning and knowledge through communities of investigation in the classroom offers an enormously rich process to both student and teacher alike and allows the teacher to assume the role of a catalyst or mediator between the students‟ processes of construction of significant meaning and the curriculum. This empowering of the students allows them to become the protagonists in the classroom, assuming responsibility for their own learning processes, and is a vital step towards acquiring the abilities they will later need in both their private and professional lives.

“To solve a problem intelligently, one must see it as one‟s own problem. That is, one must see it as an obstacle that obstructs 11

one‟s own progress towards a goal. That desire to reach what one believes to be at the end of an effort is the most reliable form of motivation. To have searched and found a path to the goal provides incomparably more pleasure and satisfaction

than to be simply told that one has given the right answer.” Von Glasersfeld (1995) p14

Moreno (2009) p 56-60 argues for the need for the reflective abilities to take a more central role in secondary education, most especially metacognitive abilities, arguing that schools should prioritise the development of students‟ metacognitive abilities which would enable them to be conscious of: their goals; their own abilities and knowledge; the requisites of the tasks which will enable them to control their acts and the corresponding results. As we are discussing cognitive and metacognitive skills that are most likely to be still in a process of emerging and developing in our specific case with adolescents, she argues that acquiring these habits should be afforded the same importance as other curricular material and should therefore be taught in an explicit way, citing Martín and Moreno (2007) to argue for metacognition as one of the key competences for 21st Century skills as defined by the OCDE.

I postulated that if I were to formulate working practices which attended to Krashen‟s model of Input + 1 in conjunction with Vygotsky‟s concept of ZPD, to challenge and support the students to progress just beyond their current abilities, then first I would need to devise strategies that not only took into the account multiple cognitive, psychosocial and emotional factors (as discussed in chapter 3 of this paper), but that it would be essential that the corresponding learning processes take place in a transparent forum with a shared agenda. Student-centred learning would not be an option, but a necessity in these secondary school groups of up to thirty students. Accordingly it would be paramount to instigate a shared process of identification of the students‟ current knowledge and abilities, as well as future goals and consequently adopt and develop methodologies which would catalyse and support ongoing, proactive discussions of possible means and routes to attain these goals.

“This means that instead of directing our instruction at what students are already capable of doing independently, we should target the “upper threshold” of their abilities, the point at which their independent performance starts breaking down. It is at this point that they can benefit most from instruction, because

teaching aimed at emerging abilities actually helps learners develop those abilities. The issue, then, is determining the 12

„range‟ or „zone‟ in which teaching can optimally bring about the development of mental abilities.”
Lantolf & Poehner (2009) p28

As I will explain in later chapters I therefore chose to confront the issue obliquely in the second phase of my teaching practice by introducing the students to the CEFR Portfolios in the belief that if they were to embark upon a process of more independent learning with the aim of progressing towards working in communities of inquiry, then I would first have to provide tools with which to begin deconstructing the existing paradigm of teacher-centred learning. The paradigm shift instigated by this curricular framework that has key competences at its core requires a complete rethinking of how we envision assessment. As I have sought to argue thus far, working through competences requires a complete redefinition of objectives and assessment in the classroom.

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3 From Theory to Methodology
The teaching unit that I now set out to develop was designed to include many of the different elements and components which made up the contents of the English specialisation units of this Master‟s course. There is insufficient space here in 1000 words to truly discuss them, suffice it to say then that they fit within the postmodern paradigm of Emergent Participatory Language Teaching: a studentcentred collaborative learning model which, through dialogical processes, encourages a critical deconstruction of accepted notions of language learning. Accordingly the first preparatory steps had to be taken jointly with my students. How could I make them owners of their own learning processes? A first step had to be an unveiling of the agenda, a move towards a more transparent model for learning goals and means of measuring ability: only then can students begin to assess their own learning and begin to plan accordingly. The portfolios of the CEFR provided me with an excellent starting point, an introduction to the concept of ownership of one‟s language learning combined with an opportunity to begin to consider, question and explore the learner‟s different interlanguage processes. The portfolio system offers contextualised frameworks of assessment and, more importantly, self-assessment, which would permit the learners and I to engage in reflective dialogues about what they knew and how this related to real world contexts. Working with and talking about the portfolios could also constitute a first step in a positive direction owing to their specific focus on what people „can do‟, drawing attention to possible discrepancies in levels and providing a relatively clear agenda of what the next step could be for each student.

However when I introduced them to both third grade ESO students and first grade Baccalaureate students in the second stage of my teaching practice, although the initial experience was positive in that we were able to talk openly about the results (discussing for example why students had an apparently higher level of ability in reading and listening rather than writing and speaking), it rapidly became apparent to all of us that the tool was over generalised for the specific context of the secondary school classroom, making it difficult for students to truly interact with them. Whilst this was most probably due to my own failings as a facilitator of these portfolios, in general the reflections and responses of the individuals in the groups led me to rethink their usage. Accordingly I sourced more detailed descriptors from a development of the CEFR project being carried out by Humphry-Baker (2010) at Lausanne University. These descriptors seemed to have a far greater personal relevance for the students and the ensuing discussions were richer. Perhaps more importantly the smaller steps between the descriptors seemed to make the learning processes more accessible, the next steps to be taken were more tangible and therefore more plausible. However this adapted portfolio model still constituted a grading instrument and not a reflective learning tool which could begin to document and help us to reflect upon what Freire termed acts of cognition.

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“Thus, teaching is the form taken by the act of cognition that the teacher necessarily performs in the quest to know what he or she is teaching in order to call forth in the students their act of cognition as well. Therefore, teaching is a creative act, a critical act, and not a mechanical one. The curiosity of the teacher and the students, in action, meet on the basis of

teaching-learning.”
Freire (2004) p68

This led me to consider the use of reflective or thinking journals. The diary format of these documents seeks to afford a space for critical reflection on one‟s own learning process, a chance to focus on insights into emergent language, the relevance of the activities in the classroom and a space to draw connections which will allow the students to recognise their own needs and accordingly to propose the direction their learning should take. Barrel describes these journals as:

“A place where a person can be alone with his or her thoughts, reflecting on what has occurred, making observations,
attempting to figure out what happened and why, and
generating some questions for the future”
Barell (2003) p84

Here there is an interesting juxtaposition in the relationship between dialogue and thinking or awareness. As Lipman states:
“The common assumption is that reflection generates
dialogue, when, in fact it is dialogue that generates reflection. Very often when people engage in dialogue with one another,
they are compelled to reflect, to concentrate, to consider
alternatives, to listen closely, to give careful attention to definitions and meanings, to recognise preciously unthought of options, and in general to perform a cast number of mental
activities that they might not have engaged in had the
conversation never occurred”
Lipman (1980) p 22

This aligns with Vygotsky‟s (1978) Sociocultural Theory where he argues that thinking is the internalisation of dialogue - if this dialogue stems from the development of learners‟ conversations that truly engage them, that are “real” 15

interactions, then we are beginning to create the right conditions for meaningful learning to take place. The construction of meaning here is, by its very nature, complex (open to different ways of interpreting and categorising the world) and flexible (tolerates and explores the ambiguity of the information). A global vision that permits the interconnection, synthesising and restructuring of personalised interpretational schemes and models whilst allowing for a focus on interpersonal relationships:

Only dialogue, which requires critical thinking, is also capable of generating critical thinking. Without dialogue there can be no true education. Education which is able to resolve the
contradiction between teacher and student takes place in a
situation in which both address their act of cognition to the object by which they are meditated.
Education is communication and dialogue.
It is not the transference of knowledge.”
Freire, (1970/1993)

Surely an ideal scenario for foreign language learners to engage in participatory learning?
So what could this balance between cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, communication strategies and socio-affective strategies look like in a secondary school classroom?
How do we turn passive, reactive learners (and teachers?) into pro-active learners with intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivations?
How can we promote genuine dialogue in order to encourage formative assessment in the foreign language classroom?

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4 From Methodology to Practice
4.1 Testing the Model
I would like to develop this chapter in the light of my previous quote on page 6 of Black and William‟s observation about teachers‟ need for clear concrete examples of theory in practice. Accordingly here I have chosen to minimise the slightly academic, abstractly theoretical tone of the first part of this paper to begin to talk about what my attempts at bringing formative assessment to my classes looked, smelt and felt like.

Let us begin with a short definition:
“Assessment [for learning] refers to all the activities undertaken by teachers and their students which provide feedback that
shapes and develops the teaching and learning activities
engaged in by the class. This becomes „formative assessment‟ when the evidence is used to adapt the teaching work to meet the students‟ learning needs”
Black Et al (2003) p 3

It seems only respectful to openly share between student and teacher the curriculum and its goals. Only then can we begin to open up a debate which allows reflection upon the students‟ own strengths and weaknesses, and to start to reflect upon which strategies we could use together to overcome perceived obstacles and attain their goals. A key function of this debate should be to begin to consider how to cater for individual learning styles and truly begin to deal with and develop empathetic intercultural competences.

In order to carry out an accelerated exploration of how to put these ideas into practice I was able to negotiate working exclusively with a smaller group of third grade ESO higher achievers in eight sessions in the second phase of my teaching practice. By using the CEFR “can do” statements to clarify goals and levels within the task of preparing for the group‟s First Certificate exams we were able to begin to discuss how to contextualise these goals in such a way that we could relate them to activities and tasks from real life situations and, by discussing them, relate them to our personal experiences. Our discussions were surprisingly rich and we were able to anchor many goals to personal experiences. This presented me with a golden opportunity to open up a dialogue with my students about their response to and expectancies of the assessment sheets I had adapted and developed from Humphry-Baker‟s project. Whilst they were at first surprised by my proposal for them to contribute to the development of assessment criteria and activities, I was even more, pleasantly, surprised by the maturity of their responses. They wanted 17

to discuss why and how they would be assessed, what they would be assessed on and why these points were chosen for assessment.
However I was still unsatisfied with the scope and detail of the descriptors, so I introduced Lenz and Stunder‟s (2007) “Self-assessment descriptors for learners in lower secondary education” developed by the Swiss Lingualevel project. The group‟s progression with these “Detailed action-oriented descriptors of Lingualevel”, was immediate and I set to work to modify and adapt them (with the invaluable help of a colleague) to a format that would be easy to use with my other students (See Appendix 4). Here I would like to invite you to spend some time browsing through them in their five categories: Listening, Reading, Conversation, Expression and Writing. I feel that their success was largely due to the highly practical nature of the descriptors which apparently connected significantly with the students‟ real life experiences. The clear progressive steps and the transparent, tangible, easily comprehensible format enticed the group to read on and to begin to discuss their possibilities of attaining higher levels. After discussing these issues they then talked together about what they would need to learn and how they could go about learning it. Gradually offers of mutual support began to blossom as they shared knowledge, the resources they had discovered and learning strategies. The new direction taken by the group presented me with the opportunity to begin to develop their tolerance for ambiguity and to develop their abilities to develop responses that were more descriptive and less judgemental, thus allowing us to progress in our definition of what would constitute a good learning programme for them.

I do not mean to imply that the process was either rapid or particularly revolutionary; simply I observed that given an appropriate space and opportunity the group expressed a strong, energetic desire to begin to take charge of their learning. Curiously the discussion of these issues with this group of fifteen year olds reaffirmed Legutke and Thomas (1991) as they clearly saw the here and the now, their immediate personal experiences, as a starting point for their learning. Creating a space to focus and reflect upon these allowed them to vocalise their observations and discoveries, which in turn were discussed and, to a certain point, evaluated and assessed by their peers. How we were to document and further reflect upon these processes had yet to be developed.

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4.2 Structuring the Process
A first step was to start activities with a simplified questioning process which promoted critical thought. Here I decided to draw on and adapt models developed for critical thinking processes by Barell (2006) and Lipman (1980). These models provided me with tested and proven questioning constructs that could be easily adapted to our needs. In addition the process of reflective writing (the documenting of what has been discovered, what is beginning to be learned, and what the student identifies as areas to be explored or improved) could constitute a bridge between learner and teacher helping both towards a mutual comprehension of how, and in which direction, future classes should progress. 






What have I been asked to do?
What options do I have?
Which is the best one for this situation?
What did I do well? What can I improve?
What would I do differently next time, why?

Examples of the simple cognitive strategies that we were able to develop were the deductive processes used upon meeting a new word or expression. Whilst not over ambitious, the initial pair activity of using contextual clues in the text to try to ascertain meaning, observing syntactical function, trying to recall previous uses of a word, before using a dictionary allowed students to begin a dialogue around their cognitive processes, providing insight into how their partners affronted the task. In this particular case the students decided that they should start to develop their own, personalised dictionaries. The ensuing discussion about what form these should take proved to be a turning point in the functioning of the group as they decided to not only question their own learning processes, but also to challenge how they had been taught language to date precisely because, in their opinion, they had not learnt how to communicate the things that they would normally communicate in Catalan or Spanish.

Here we arrive at what is, for me, the crux of the issue in traditional language instruction and testing: if what we learn, or are made to learn, has no true connection to activities in the real world how can we integrate it in our personal schemes of reality?

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4.3 Adapting the Model
My role had been essentially to use different strategies to help the students to maintain their dialogue, to help them overcome pauses, and to subtly intervene in order to begin to make them aware of how voicing the things that they partially understood or perceived enabled the group‟s members to make their thinking visible to their colleagues and thus to progress towards joint proposals and conclusions: not very far from a coaching role. Joint learning tends to be faster than individual learning, most especially when the learners are on the brink of progressing, of making connections. Together making cognitive leaps is easier, peers can be sounding boards that allow for ideas, concerns and observations to be voiced. This form-giving can lead to mutual confidence building. Mutual contributions to partially constructed notions can lead to an independent progression where the individual‟s abilities and knowledge are complimented and enhanced by their colleagues‟ contributions. Herein lay partial confirmation of the theoretical bases that I have explored previously in this paper: collaborative work with peers can be the ideal catalyst to progress in learners‟ ZPDs. Dialogue can complement, challenge and fine-tune previous knowledge, leading to a joint construction of meaning and facilitating interconnection with cognitive structures.

In my opinion some of the key factors here were the many learning opportunities I, as a teacher, was offered by both the students‟ and our joint investigative processes. Working collaboratively, in a proto-community of inquiry, was an enriching learning experience.

“The coach believes in the ability of the individual to create insights and ideas needed to move their situation forward. The task of the coach is to use advanced skills of listening,
questioning and reflection to create highly effective
conversations and experiences for the individual.”
Starr (2003)

This confirmation of the feasibility of using this methodology was a decisive factor in the development of my two teaching units for the Independent Intervention Phase of my teaching practice. Whilst the choice of subject matter would be selected by the pupils to coincide with an area of their interest, my task would be to create a stimulating, sufficiently flexible structure that would allow us to create these “highly effective conversations and experiences”. The coaching model she proposes aligns with the Vygotskian theory in that three of its premises for giving feedback are: 




the identifying of the goal;
considering evidence about the current situation;
proposals to bridge the gap between the current position and the goal.

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The ultimate aim of coaching is to provide the necessary support and safe climate that will allow the learner to experiment with possible ways of closing this gap between the current position and the goal, to take risks to improve their learning. The dialogue generated can lead to the discovery of and insight into previously unrecognised weaknesses and strengths, if this occurs in the supportive context of work in pairs or small groups, it is likely that appropriate conditions can be created for reciprocal learning to take place.

My experience with this pilot group had made it patently clear to me that a vital component for the continuity of student dialogues in larger groups would be an appropriate questioning strategy that would allow not only the creation of dialogue, but, perhaps more importantly, provide tools to sustain that dialogue. I would have to go beyond my habitual tactic of grasping as many of those golden genuine communicative interactions as possible and try to move towards a questioning style that would help students draw out meaning from their observations: questions which would function as tools for helping analysis, reflection and dialogue to progress. I therefore set-out to develop a battery of questions which would enable the students themselves to scaffold each other throughout their conversations: mechanisms of support which could enable them to overcome the inevitable stumbling blocks they would meet and subsequently progress in their construction of meaning. Perhaps then emergent participatory learning could become truly student-centred in this context.

Here once again Barrell (2006) proved to be an invaluable source, providing me with a first proposal for strategies and sets of questions for different situations: Reflections:













What seems to be important here is…
What I would like to know more about is…
I wonder…
This reminds me of…
This relates or is connected to…
What surprises me is…
I feel confused about...
I am learning this about the subject…
I am learning this about my way of learning…
I am learning this about the way other people think or learn… What do you wonder about now?
Where do you go from here?

Monitor:
 How well am I/ are we doing here?
 What is frustrating or causing me/us difficulties. Why?
 Am I/ are we learning things that make us change
my/our original ideas/question. Why?
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4.4 Developing the Teaching Units
The deconstruction of the deep-seated dependence of learners conditioned by a teacher-centred model that I encountered in my practicum was well beyond the possibilities offered by such a short series of interventions, but nevertheless I did have the opportunity to raise awareness of how to make use of a range of resources and methodologies that constituted a first step.

I chose to develop a project-based approach centred on areas of interest that I had already discussed with the groups: Facebook with ESO 3A and Internet-based activism with BAT 1C. In the previous sessions we had begun to work with a participatory dynamic, and the classes were gradually becoming accustomed to working in English in pairs and small groups. Additionally we had initiated our first incursion into the use of learning journals which allowed us to discuss cognitive and metacognitive processes and to take our first step towards initiating dialogues around the issues.

The entire project would be based on genuine material sourced from the web, with the addition of videos and interview materials. The listening comprehension tasks would be developed through the use of video interviews and documentaries viewed initially in original format, secondly with gap-fill subtitle exercises (custom created using Windows Movie Maker) and finally with the complete sub-titles version. This would allow the difficulty of the exercises to be graded in three levels of difficulty that corresponded approximately to the different levels of ability within the group. These video activities would then serve as the basis for dialogue activities and extended writing activities in conjunction with texts from the different websites. Class Wikis would be used for the class to post, share and peer-correct their assignments. The Wiki also acted as a resource centre for the group, enabling the more able students to progress more rapidly and providing a space for the weaker students to reinforce their learning. The creation of a blog offered a forum for students to share their learning experiences and to comment on their discoveries both in and outside of the class.

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4.5 The Learning from the Classes
4.5.1 SCAFFOLDING
One of the factors that most influenced both groups‟ progress was my decision to openly discuss with them how they would like to be scaffolded. The opportunity to discuss this topic arose with ESO 3A as we discussed the success of a video-based activity where it seemed that I had over-scaffolded the class by directing the level of the supporting sentence stems displayed on the white board to what I had perceived as being the level of the lower ability students. The group limited itself initially to just using these prompts, but upon discussing the results were torn between complaining that they were too easy and taking the easy way out. Curiously as the topic (funny stories about Facebook users) was proving to be a successful subject of conversation the group wanted to go further, to share more anecdotes and began to switch to L1/L2. The great revelation for me (and for them?) here was their own selfcriticism. They referred back to our discussions in previous lessons about how our classes were a fantastic opportunity to make mistakes together in a safe, relatively non-judgemental environment (much easier here than in front of a future employer or boy/girlfriend). This led us to develop strategies for scaffolding from both myself and their fellow students.

4.5.2 ASSESSING THE USE OF L3 IN PAIR AND GROUP WORK
When I talked with ESO 3A about how to encourage the use of L3 in pair work, to my great surprise they decided it should be scored, proposing to self-evaluate their use of L3 in pair and group work. Unfortunately this occurred in the penultimate class so, despite a small trial, I have yet to develop this tool, which propose to do in the future work using Black Et al‟s (2003) research on peer assessment.

4.5.3 PROMOTING DIALOGUE
One of the most difficult learner habits to break proved to be the absolute reliance on the teacher for the emission of “right or wrong” judgements in answer to the learners‟ doubts and questions. If the class was to become an investigative community, able to explore together the issues we were discussing, then I would have to throw the responsibility for much of the answering back at the students: try to be consistent in my message that they should become proactively responsible for the learning. This required some notable effort on my own behalf, not only in the control of my body language to avoid signalling a non-verbal response to the question, but also in the increasingly apparent need to give the students time to think and then answer. This became a key point in the process of challenging the students‟ previous conditioning. After all, nearly all of us have been „programmed‟ 23

and conditioned to respond as quickly as possible to a question, waving our hands eagerly in the air. Maintaining these „pregnant pauses‟ was, at first, not easy. I as a teacher wanted to add something, to fill the gap, to help them forward, but the waiting did finally pay off. As I have stated previously, the short time scale of my teaching practice did not provide adequate circumstances for reliable data to be collected, however, if I combine the initial findings from my classroom experiences with those of more competent observers such as Black and William (1998), I feel that it is fair to say that the students began to appreciate that these longer pauses for thought could indicate that they were required to reflect more deeply. This gradually became apparent in the nature of their answers which began to refer to their previous experiences and learning. Their responses began to be more reasoned, some even moved beyond the initial question and began to comment on and propose interrelationships and connections with the ideas of their classmates. Later we were able to talk about the importance of not jumping to conclusions too quickly, of leaving space for others to think and formulate their ideas. This proved to be particularly useful when the students were working in pairs as it functioned as a reminder to the quicker students that perhaps their partners could bring to light new perspectives and ways of working which could be of mutual benefit (if they were allowed the time and space to express themselves).

I continued to experiment with means of getting more students to participate in the large group discussions by trying to use their mistakes or misunderstandings as a catalyst for positive discussion, a way into beginning to understand how the language works and, in many cases, a means of drawing comparison with Spanish or Catalan constructs. This was particularly successful when I challenged them to try to say in English what they would habitually say in their L1. Throughout the discussions and activities of the teaching units I repeatedly asked them to try to develop a tone of voice that they felt could be comfortably theirs. As the activities were already focused on issues that were of some personal relevance to them at times it was difficult to avoid code-switching, but curiously the ESO 3A group actually began to „censor‟ their colleagues if they code-switched by offering the suitable expression or form in English. This was one of the highlights for me as it seemed that the students had begun to accept the challenge, to participate with the new rules of the game and to work collaboratively. There was a notable change in the class dynamic here as the issue was no longer about who was the first to produce the right answer, but more about joint exploration. More importantly it seemed that it was acceptable in whole class activities for the members of the group to express their doubts and to request support from their colleagues and then to begin to discuss the appropriateness of the solutions. In pair work this blossomed.

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4.5.4 REFLECTIVE JOURNALS
Unfortunately the use of reflective learning journals that I had planned for these teaching units was not as successful as I had hoped. I had designed each session to have five minutes for individual written reflection at the end, to be recapped on at the beginning of the following session. However, given the short, six session duration of the teaching unit, I deemed that it was more important to focus on the development of collaborative learning. In hindsight I now judge this to have been a mistake as I feel that not using private individual written reflection did not cater sufficiently for the different learning styles within the group and hindered the possibilities of creating clearer continuity between the sessions. I am left with a niggling sense of underachievement after my teaching practice. The groups were just beginning to take ownership of some aspects of their learning, but only just. I felt a sense of frustration on having to finish our work together which has led me to further research more developed models of similar working practice. I would like to conclude therefore with a compilation of findings from other projects by Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall and William (2003) who offer the following questioning strategies to foster reflection and discussion which I hope will serve to inform and develop my work in the future:










preparing quality questions designed to explore and challenge common misunderstandings, and to create some conflict
requiring discussion ('open questions')
using incorrect answers from both class work and homework as discussion points to be taken up by the whole class
giving students more time to think and sometimes time to discuss their thoughts with peers
encouraging students to put mistakes right together, reaching answers collaboratively
abandoning the usual practice of students putting their hands up to volunteer answers to questions - by insisting on
'hands down' - to discourage competition
asking open questions so that all the students felt they had something to say Black Et al. (2003) p6

I have come to believe that when planning classroom interventions it is paramount that I use the principles of Development Contextualism in order to be able to begin to take into account what my adolescent students can receive and interpret from my actions. Here the Personal-Environment Fit Theory (Eccles and Roeser 2006 p 135-141) seems particularly appropriate in order to be able to try to understand how experiences in the school affect teenage development from both individual and institutional perspectives. Furthermore their Stage Environment Fit Theory offers further tools to adapt teaching strategies and interventions to be in alignment with learners‟ individual developmental stages and turning points. 25

Moreno (2009) p 89-91 suggests that when planning class activities we should pay particular attention to the following aspects:
1, Attending to the learner‟s developmental needs
2, Adapting to the adolescent‟s goals
3, Developing guidelines for the individual‟s self esteem and identity. 4, Developing guidelines for social interaction.
I would add the importance of trying to intervene in a way that takes into account the students‟ individual learning styles in different situations. In, addition if my proposals are to succeed, then it also seems essential to me that I should strive to address the development of the students‟ independence, in the understanding that their move towards independence is a multi-dimensional construct affecting both their microsystems and macrosystems which emerges as a result of their emotional, psychological and social maturational changes (Zimmer-Gembeck & Collins 2006: p. 176-197).

What is of particular interest to me is the concept of symbolic representation as a tool which Vygotsky (1997) further develops to imply that the use of this tool in our cognitive processes acts as a catalyst allowing us to develop our ideas not only internally, but also externally, in this case through dialogue which, as we have seen previously, Lipman (1980) stated is what generates reflection. Here social interaction through dialogue can begin to play a key role in the foreign language classroom.

This dialogue which takes place in two directions (internal-external, external-internal) can be a tool for reflection, a tool which allows us to modify our conceptual structuring and organising of the world around us and its codes. According to Marti and Onrubia (2004), working to establish and clarify the relationship between spontaneous concepts, previous knowledge and what they term more scientific concepts catalyzes the creation of substantial relationships between the students‟ cognitive structure and newly discovered materials and knowledge. Personalisation of meaning, the interconnection of theoretical models and the personal reality construct of each student encourages the establishment of new connections between different interpretative models. Revealing, exploring and examining these processes, making them visible to both teacher and learner could be a key step towards the meaningful construction of language in the foreign language classroom.

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5 Conclusions
5.1 On Affective Formative Assessment
In his paper “Authentic assessment in affective foreign language education” Kohonen (1999) offers an undoubtedly idealistic (whilst at the same time deeply seductive) view of what assessment can mean for both the language student and the language teacher within the context of affective foreign language education. However, the opinions he expresses are far from naïve and, I feel, reflect what many students and their teachers would yearn for, were it not for the (often selfimposed) restraints of the contexts in which they operate. Consequently his arguments for “a paradigm shift towards transformative learning” deserve lengthy consideration, although perhaps an even lengthier consideration should be made of why we tolerate and accept the impediments that are all too often placed before his proposed methodologies and how we could overcome these impediments. Students and their educators have long been aware of the „backwash‟ effect of examination criteria on practice in the classroom. Changes in these criteria and the associated methodologies and teaching models have, to date, been somewhat slow and ephemeral.

Kohonen‟s central thesis is based on a paradigm of the interconnection of language learning, teaching and evaluation. He advocates a position of respect for the autonomy of all those involved in the learning process, ultimately recommending the creation of a fully functional community of enquiry and learning. At first glance these goals may appear to be innocently optimistic, but I hope that some of the small actions that have been the subject of this paper may encourage some members of the teaching community at IES Joan Ramon Benaprès to take some small tentative steps forward.

Ground breaking though Kohonen‟s proposals may at first appear to be, his proposals are firmly rooted in mutual respect and a process of shared learning: surely a desire common to most students and their educators. It seems only logical that if we feel that our personal efforts are valued in a personal way, then we are likely to be more motivated to progress in our learning, whether we be teacher or student. Consequently he concludes:

“Authentic assessment provides new ways of guiding,
supervising and reporting learning with an emphasis on the
learner‟s holistic growth. It needs to be nurtured by educators working towards a community of teachers and learners.”
Kohonen (1999) p17

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Particularly pertinent for adolescents in today‟s secondary school classroom and even more so if we follow his argument and consider its application to the goal of intercultural competence.
Kohonen requires us to commit ourselves to a metacognitive process, a reflective dynamic which will permit us to identify our own needs, and to, in turn, recognise our advances towards the fulfilment of those needs. The corresponding internalisation of newly acquired language skills through meaningful social interaction is ideally suited to the secondary school classroom, but demands considerable effort on the behalf of the teaching staff to develop effective assessment tools for this affective learning. The benefits that can be derived from this challenge, however, clearly outweigh the disadvantages and accordingly, I feel, warrant further practical development.Furthermore Black and William„s summative investigations highlight what may be the most positive aspect revealed by many research projects:

“which show that improved formative assessment helps the
(so-called) low attainers more than the rest, and so reduces the spread of attainment whilst also raising it overall.”
Black and William (2001) p3

5.2 Implications and Consequences
If the implementation of a constructivist model in Catalan secondary schools is to be successful, then there appears to be a need for a change in the mind-sets of many of the current teaching staff. If there is no significant change in the attitude towards in-service-training for existing practitioners, then the task faced by the latest batch of newly-trained teachers is more than daunting. Despite the luxury of having a rich intelligent constructivist curriculum which offers clearly defined, open opportunities to develop participatory teaching practices, there appears to be stagnation in the transition towards the new mentality required by the paradigm shift to working through competences. I have witnessed a department-centred philosophy where unfortunately the fantastic opportunities offered by inter-departmental collaboration have been largely ignored. Brave, inspirational leadership is called for here and perhaps it is the staff themselves who need to be empowered before they are able to empower their students. The move towards working through competences, assessment for learning and a more student-centred model of education has been in general terms far more successful in the sector of Primary Education. A key factor for this success appears to have been the innate coherence in the teachers‟ discourse largely, because there is one main teacher sharing the class with a limited number of specialists. Evidently no big surprises here, but an enormous challenge for

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Secondary Schools to follow if they are to fulfil the expectations that have been created in their by their Primary School colleagues.

5.3 Extending the Model
If we are to extend the reasoning and practice behind the use of communities of inquiry and truly move towards a constructivist, student-centred learning model in accordance with both the recommendations of the curriculum and the OCDE, then the “Eina de Sensibilització per a l‟ Elaboració del Projecte de Convivència del Centre” (See Appendix 6.4) presents us with a fantastic opportunity to open the debate to the whole of the school‟s educational community, and most especially affords an opportunity to include parents in the proposed educational model. In my opinion the process presents the whole educational community with an effective tool to catalyse and facilitate the participation of all of its members in the analysis of, and reflection on, the existing dynamics and relationships; offering the chance to open a debate to explore and develop an ideal scenario for the community in which all of its members can participate and assume responsibility for their own learning processes. The first activity “Sharing conceptual frameworks” (Compartint Marcs Conceptuals) strikes me as offering particularly pertinent ways towards meeting with the demands of “Les Instruccions d‟Organització i Funcionament dels Centres”:

“...facilitar a les famílies l‟exercici del dret i el deure de participar i d‟implicarse en el procés educatiu de llurs fills : incorporar elements que permetin la implicació dels alumnes en llur procés educatiu”

A further step would then be the introduction of a different tutorial model such as the “Orientative Tutorial” model (Tutoria Orientadora), as proposed by Hidalgo (2010) from IES Manuel Carrasco i Formiguera, Barcelona. According to this model the orientative tutors work, in addition to and parallel with the class tutors, allowing the tutoring to become more personalised and therefore closer to coaching through making all the teaching staff tutors, and thus allowing a dramatic reduction in ratio to a group size of ten to fifteen students per tutor. Not only does this model permit much more detailed support of the students‟ academic and personal development, but it also enables a proactive approach by both teachers, students and their families. The reduced tutor-student, tutor-family ratio most especially encourages trustful relationships to be established, and thus facilitates, through the use of coaching and active listening methodologies, the founding of meaningful relationships between the tutor, the student and their families (Giner & Saumell, 2009).

If we now return to the GDA report cited at the beginning of this paper and review the SWOT analysis and the conclusions that the school has drawn from it in the 29

light of the aforementioned proposals, perhaps it would be worth considering the introduction of these methodologies in the school as a means of beginning to turn around some of the observed weaknesses and producing change in some of the key points to improve the satisfaction of the schools „groups of interest‟ as defined in the Strategic Plan:

-

-

La identificació de les persones amb el Centre.
La confiança dels grups d‟interès. S‟inclou aquí “les relacions entre les persones del Centre”, “el funcionament de la informació”, “la responsabilitat i cooperació entre els alumnes i les estratègies per afavorir la convivència en el Centre”, “les normes de convivència” i “l‟impuls de la participació de pares i mares”.

L‟observació de la realitat
La comprensió oral, visual i acústica i la comunicació oral del coneixement i l‟aprenentatge
La sensibilització multicultural i plurilingüística
L‟elaboració de projectes i plans de centre
La coordinació dels departaments i seminaris i la potenciació del treball en equip del professorat

L'organització de les activitats a l'aula i el funcionament dels centres, les activitats docents, les formes de relació i de comunicació que s'estableixen entre la comunitat educativa i la relació amb l'entorn, contribuiran a la consolidació de les competències bàsiques.

7.4 DOGC núm. 4915 - 29/06/2007

5.4 Hope for the Future!
This paper has sought to address one of the great, looming doubts that I, and many of my colleagues, have begun to face at the end of this Master‟s course: how to put into practice the inspirational pedagogical model with which we have become acquainted when faced with a professional context which still functions with previous paradigms? Many teachers are indeed aware of the potential benefits of encouraging their students to work in a more autonomous way, if only as a means to achieving better class management and of freeing up time to be better able to attend to the diversity of knowledge and ability within a group. However upon closer consideration it becomes rapidly evident that for the task to be successful we must embark upon a model close to that proposed by Freire (1970/1993) whereby the traditional power relationships in the classroom are recognised, questioned and deconstructed.

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6 Appendix
6.1 l’Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès
6.1.1 ASSESSMENT OF THE GOALS AND ORGANIZATION OF
L‟INSTITUT JOAN RAMON BENAPRÈS
L‟Institut Joan Ramon Benaprès, in agreement with the Department of Education of the Catalan Government, has embarked on an ambitious four year (2010-2014) plan for the strategic improvement of the quality of its educational services (PMQCE). The resulting contractual agreement with the Education Authorities has given new funding for working on the three key objectives which will include selfanalysis, adaptation and testing in accordance with the ISO 9001 quality certification programme.

The process was initiated through a Global Diagnostic Evaluation (GDE) of the school‟s situation which was supported by inspectors from the Education Authority. This thorough analysis of both the school‟s internal and external situations culminated in an assessment of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis). These observations were then used as a base for further research leading to the creation of an action plan.

I have attached an explanation of the AGD process and the report in Appendix 2 of this paper. The report concludes with a strategic map which in turn constitutes the basis for a route map to achieve the agreed objectives which can be summarised under three main headings:

1, The Improvement of Educational Results
2, The Improvement of Social Cohesion
3, More trustful relationships with external groups of interest

6.1.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE STAFF AND THE STUDENTS
6.1.2.1 THE STAFF
The school follows a very much Department centred, perhaps a legacy from its BUP/COU origins. Unfortunately interdepartmental communication and collaboration are not strengths here and in fact appears as the first in the SWOT analysis of the GDE as Weakness number one, followed by: the failure to putting protocols into practice; teacher punctuality; problems in the application of achieved agreements; not working with curricular adaptations and the lack of treatment of diversity.

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These factors are counterbalanced by the strengths of: competent teaching staff; lack of student conflict; the putting into practice of initiatives to improve the school.

6.1.2.2 THE STUDENTS

Batxillerat 1C
In general terms there is a relaxed atmosphere in the school, although at times this appears to be somewhat detrimental to achieving academic goals as student attendance is erratic, most noticeably in Batxillerat where it appears to be acceptable for students to skip classes or walk in up to 15 minutes late. It is also common practice for students to come without their textbooks. A has been confirmed by the school‟s management group many of these middle-class students are studying this course having dailed a significant number of subjects at ESO level and also out of inertia as in the Garraf region there are insufficient vocational courses to meet the current demand, accordingly one of the few alternatives to unemployment is studying Batxillerat. Many of the students have not considered studying a university course.

This teaching unit has been developed for the first year Batxillerat 1C classes in six sessions over two weeks (Tuesdays 12.00-13.00, Thursday 12.00-13.00) I was asked to conduct their oral English exams in my first class with them and observed a big difference in abilities ranging from mid A1 to B2 (recently arrived Dutch 18yr old) and C1 (English native speaker with a British Public School accent!). In general if the subject of conversation was one of their areas of personal interest they were effective communicators and most were able to understand questions at near native speed.

I started to teach complete sessions to this group in January using a task-based approach. We broke through the initial embarrassment that they felt and have had great fun together and, although some are prone to code switch, they have spent the majority of the class actively communicating in English with each other including some passionate arguments and discussions.

The school is situated in a small friendly coastal town, an affluent (average income is 20% higher than the average in Catalunya) privileged environment, with a student body that is predominantly from a middle-class background. In general terms families are supportive and even over-protective of their children (as commented on by the Head of Studies), this is reflected in the school‟s social 32

climate and the apparent absence of conflictive situations. However the SWOT analysis of the AGD defines the third most important threat as being the increase in the number of problem families and the rise in the number of students receiving insufficient care or support at home. Threat number 7 is the lack of parental involvement. This has been corroborated in our interviews by the Head of Studies and the Educational Coordinator who have underlined the need to improve the collaboration between the school and parents, which they seek to achieve through the action plan for second strategic goal, “Improve social cohesion.” As can be observed in the AGD, threat number 2 is the “important number of students with detected weaknesses in their Primary education (language, mathematics and geography.” This has led the school to refocus on these three academic areas in order to assure the attainment of appropriate levels. The adopted strategy is to use the school‟s detected strengths to counter-balance these weaknesses through the five strategies within the plan to improve academic results. In as far as the subject of English is concerned there are several planned actions which should have both direct and indirect effects:

Strategy 1.1: The involvement of all departments in linguistic skills development

Goal 1: Increase the transverse treatment of linguistic skills (80% of departments will carry out three related activities). Goal 2: Improve the results of the evaluation of linguistic skills (Improve the percentage of students achieving pass grades in Catalan and

Spanish with respect to the previous three academic years.)

These goals include the identifying of the linguistic skills to be improved (written comprehension, oral expression, discourse construction, structuring of texts and reading) and the correspondent timing in accordance with the academic level of the students. Appropriate educational activities will then be designed and incorporated into the existing curricular plans and schedules.

Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects on the use of Catalan as the core language caused by the presence of a significant number of students who are first or second generation immigrants from South America. The school has a well established reception programme for non-Catalan speakers, however once these pupils have finished the initial introductory period, the South Americans tend to revert to the Spanish language which has led to an estimated 40% of classes being delivered in Spanish to facilitate class control. This unofficial policy is seen as being particularly counter-productive as all the text books are in Catalan, and perhaps more importantly it leads to the exclusion and confusion of immigrant

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students who have yet to master either Spanish or Catalan. The LIC and Educational Coordinators are working actively to readjust this situation.

The sixth goal deals specifically with the need to improve results in English and the chosen indicator for success is that more than 30% of students should achieve a pass grade in oral English at all levels of ESO and the percentage of passes in English in the whole of ESO should be higher than the average of previous academic years. To achieve these goals the following actions will be carried out:

1. One hour per week to practice communicative oral English competences with a language assistant.
2. CLIL in Social Sciences for grades 2, 3 and 4 of ESO.
3. An international exchange programme for 3 rd grade ESO students, with accompanying promotional activities for 2nd grade students and their parents, repeated in the first term of third grade.
There are a significant number of potential high achievers in English in the school due to two factors:



38% of immigrants in Sitges are from the European Union consequently there is a relatively large number of children who have a comparatively high level of oral English, including several passive bilinguals. The economical status of many families allows them to invest in after school classes in private language schools.

At present this positive diversity is being dealt with as well as can be expected given the size of the classes and the evident need to focus on and support students who are less able in English so that they are able to attain pass grades.

6.1.3 SOME TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS
I found the report and the process behind it to be thorough, detailed and incisive. The Management Team has taken a bold step towards the newly legislated independent status that can be afforded to Catalan Secondary Schools and has intelligently worked to create working committees to assure the attainment of the goals they have set themselves.

However they seem to have an arduous task ahead of them in winning the hearts and minds of all of the teaching staff. The handling and presentation of this complex and challenging process of change by the Management Team and its reception by the staff and students appear to be the decisive factors in how it will be successful.

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The process appears to have been enormously positive in so far as it has brought into sharp focus what the priorities of the school should be; no small feat considering the complexity of running a large Secondary School. However, the Department centred model is particularly resistant to change and if the new, proactive, management-led working practices and the curriculum based on working through competences are to be successfully implemented, and are to achieve their full potential, it appears to be vital to win the hearts and minds of the individual members of the departments in order to be able to initiate a truly collaborative model.

A consequence of these improvement plans is the general tendency within the school to focus increasingly more on clearly tangible, easily measureable systems of assessment. Whilst within a constructivist system this should be a positive move forward in terms of clearly helping students to identify their own strengths and weaknesses, the current assessment model is most definitely not formative and is not used to engage students in proactive learning. If we link this to the fact that many students are failing their English exams then we are faced with a scenario that will make achieving the school‟s proposed goals not only over optimistic, but, if we take into account the sense of alienation that failing produces in students, could actually make these goals potentially counter-productive.

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6.1.4 ACORD QUADRIENNAL D‟APLICACIÓ DEL PLA ESTRATÈGIC PER A LA MILLORA DE LA QUALITAT DEL SERVEI EDUCATIU QUE
PRESTA DURANT EL PERÍODE 2010-2014
6.1.4.1 DOCUMENT 1. PLA ESTRATÈGIC

Plantejament institucional: missió, visió i valors

MISSIÓ DE L’ INSTITUT

Formar i orientar els alumnes en relació amb el seu procés d‟aprenentatge, a la seva integració social i laboral, i a la seva acreditació d‟acord amb les lleis educatives. Aquesta formació comporta elevar el nivell de competència de l‟alumnat fomentar l‟esperit crític i desenvolupar els seus coneixements, habilitats, actituds, valors i capacitats.

LA VISIÓ DE L’ INSTITUT

El centre aspira a millorar permanent la qualitat dels seus serveis educatius, arrelant-se a la cultura del país i a l‟entorn local. A més aspira a integrar l‟alumne en un món globalitzat a través dels desenvolupament de les capacitats lingüístiques, de la competència digital i del coneixement dels sectors empresarials relacionats amb els Cicles Formatius del Centre

EL VALORS DE L’INSTITUT

El centre es defineix com a centre integrador i respectuós amb totes les creences i ideologies, en el marc de la convivència democràtica. A més practica i promou la igualtat de gènere i el coneixement i debat dels problemes més rellevants de l‟actualitat.

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Generalitat de Catalunya
Departament d’Educació

6.1.4.1.1

6.1.4.2 ANÀLISI DAFO

Amenaces

Oportunitats

Fortaleses

Debilitats

37

Nom del centre
Població:

MATRIU DAFO
1
10

AMENACES (Contrarestrar)

OPORTUNITATS (Aprofitar)

4
3
1
4
1
3
2

1
2
2
3
1
3
3

1
3
2
4
1
3
3

1
3
3
3
1
2
3

1
2
2
3
1
1
3

1
3
3
4
3
3
3

3 4 ,3

2 0 ,0

2 6 ,7

5 7 ,1

3 4 ,0

4 5 ,3

4 0 ,0

3 4 ,0

4 5 ,3

6 5 ,7

5 0 ,0

6 6 ,7

3 4 ,3

2 3 ,0

3 0 ,7

5 1,4

4 0 ,0

5 3 ,3

3 7 ,5

3
4
1
2
4
3
3

5 7 ,1

3 5 ,0

4 6 ,7

14

14 ,6

20

18

15

17

16

13

20

17 ,0

MITJANA

4 0 ,0

4 1,8

5 7 ,1

5 1,4

4 2 ,9

4 8 ,6

4 5 ,7

3 7 ,1

5 7 ,1

4 8 ,6

3 3 ,7

2

3

4 5 ,0

1

3

2

2

3

1

1

3 7 ,1

3 1,0

4 1,3

3

3

2

5 7 ,5

1

2

2

1

1

1

3

3 1,4

3 4 ,0

4 5 ,3

1

1

2

1

2 7 ,5

1

3

2

2

2

2

1

3 7 ,1

2 4 ,0

3 2 ,0

1

3

2

1

2 7 ,5

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2 2 ,9

19 ,0

2 5 ,3

1

1

1

1

1

2 0 ,0

4

2

3

3

2

2

1

4 8 ,6

2 5 ,0

3 3 ,3

2

1

1

2

2

2

3 5 ,0

1

2

2

1

1

1

3

3 1,4

2 5 ,0

3 3 ,3

4

3

1

1

2

2

1

3 7 ,5

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4 5 ,7

3 1,0

4 1,3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2 0 ,0

1

1

2

2

1

2

1

2 8 ,6

18 ,0

2 4 ,0

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

2 7 ,5

1

1

3

2

3

3

4

4 8 ,6

2 8 ,0

3 7 ,3

1
5
5
4
2
4
2

1
1
3
3
1
3
3

1
1
1
3
1
2
1

1
1
1
3
1
1
1

1
1
3
4
1
2
2

1
2
3
3
1
3
2

1
1
2
3
3
3
1

2 0 ,0

17

23

15

10

9

14

15

4 8 ,6

6 5 ,7

4 2 ,9

2 8 ,6

2 5 ,7

4 0 ,0

4 2 ,9

D.1

3

4

2

1

1

2

D.2

3

4

4

3

1

D.3

2

1

2

1

D.4

1

1

1

1

D.5

1

1

1

D.6

1

3

D7

1

D8
D9

5 0 ,0
6 7 ,5
2 7 ,5
5 5 ,0

Estratègies d'atenció preferent

P.FEBLES (neutralitzar o com pensar)

Suma
%
TOTAL
%

3 5 ,0

O.6

O7

4 5 ,0

Estratègies de millora

14

23

17

11

9

16

16

13

14,9

13

16

19

16

17

16

19

16 ,6

MITJANA

3 1,1

5 1,1

3 7 ,8

2 4 ,4

2 0 ,0

3 5 ,6

3 5 ,6

2 8 ,9

33,1

2 8 ,9

3 5 ,6

4 2 ,2

3 5 ,6

3 7 ,8

3 5 ,6

4 2 ,2

3 6 ,8

2 6 ,1

3 1,0

4 6 ,0

3 2 ,0

2 1,0

18 ,0

3 0 ,0

3 1,0

2 7 ,0

3 3 ,0

3 4 ,0

3 4 ,0

3 3 ,0

3 3 ,0

2 9 ,0

3 9 ,0

3 8 ,8

5 7 ,5

4 0 ,0

2 6 ,3

2 2 ,5

3 7 ,5

3 8 ,8

3 3 ,8

4 1,3

4 2 ,5

4 2 ,5

4 1,3

4 1,3

3 6 ,3

Capacitat per a compensar les
mancances

Suma
%

O.5

Estratègies de creixement

1
2
2
4
1
4
3

Nivell d'utiliat de les
fortaleses

Estratègies de prevenció
F.1
F.2
F.3
F.4
F.5
F.6
F.7

O.4

O.3

O.2

O.1

A8

A7

A.6

A.5

A.4

A.3

A.2

A.1

P.FORTS (utilitzar)

Mitjana %

%

Mitjana %

Total

Valor

INS. J.R. BENAPRÈS
SITGES

4 8 ,8

Capacitat per contrarestar les am enaces

3 4 ,8

Capacitat per aprofitar cada oportunitat

38

-

6.1.4.3 INTERPRETACIÓ DE LA MATRIU DAFO I CONCLUSIONS

39

Els apartat prioritzats com a conclusió de l‟anàlisi de la matriu són els següents: Com amenaces destaquen:
1 Important nombre d’alumnes amb debilitats detectades en la formació primària (65,7)
2. Poca implicació dels pares i mares (42,9)
3. L’administració educativa i els seus canvis de lleis (48,6) 4 Increment de famílies desestructurades i desatenció d’alumnes(42,9) Reflexions:
a) Es considera que el Centre no pot incidir en el punt 3 i se desestima. b) Es considera que el punt 4 està inclòs en el punt 2, ja que el que és efectiu per resoldre els problemes educatius és, en tot cas, l’ implicació dels pares Així queden com amenaces el punt 1 i el 2, i d’aquest dos com a destacat clarament el punt 1:

Amenaces (conclusió)
1. Important nombre d’alumnes amb debilitats detectades en la formació primària (65,7)
2. Poca implicació dels pares i mares(42,9)

Per contrarestar aquestes amenaces es desprèn clarament de la matriu unes estratègies de prevenció derivada dels punts forts del Centre i de la necessària atenció als punts dèbils A. Els punts forts del Centre que és necessari mantenir i incrementar són: 1. La posta en pràctica d‟iniciatives per la millora del funcionament del Centre (67,5) (Estratègies. 1.1, 1.3, 1.4)

2. Un professorat competent (55).
3. Estructura i organització de l‟atenció a la diversitat de l‟ESO (50) (Estratègies. 1.5)

B. Apareixen com a punt dèbils que és necessari afrontar per superar les dues amenaces:
1. Manca d‟aplicació de protocols (57,5)
2. Manca de coordinació i col·laboració entre els departaments (45,0)

41

Reflexions:
-

Es considera que els punts A1, A2, A3 i B2 estan directament implicats en l‟Amenaça 1 (alumnes amb debilitats detectades en la formació)

-

Es considera que els punts A1, A3 i B1 estan estretament relacionats amb la superació de l‟amenaça 2 (implicació dels pares en la labor educativa).

Com a oportunitats pel Centre per aprofitar els punts forts es deriva una estratègia de creixement. Les oportunitats en aquest sentit radiquen en: 1.Diversitat cultural que presenta l‟alumnat (57,1) (Estratègies. 2.1) 2. Entorn adequat per la col·laboració amb les empreses. Ajuntament i entitats solidàries (51,4) (Estratègies. 3.1, 3.2)

3. Bon i accessible entorn natural i cultural (45,7)
4. Renovació arquitectònica del Centre (57,1)

Els punts forts que el Centre té per aprofitar aquestes oportunitats els veiem en:
1.Un alumnat poc conflictiu (57,1) (Estratègies. 2.2)
2.La posta en pràctica d‟indicatives per la millora del funcionament del Centre (65,7)
3.Professorat competent (51,4)
4. Bon clima de convivència al Centre (57,1) (Estratègies. 3.5, 2.4)

Reflexions:
-

Pensem que un alumnat poc conflictiu potencia les oportunitats 1,2. D‟altra banda, els quatre punts forts permeten aprofitar millor les quatre oportunitats destacades.

Com a punts febles en relació a la possibilitat d’aprofitar les oportunitats abans mencionades es ressalten dues:

42

1. Manca d‟un servei eficient en el manteniment de tot l‟aparell tecnològic (48,6)
2. Manca d‟implicació de tots els departaments en la millora de les competències lingüístiques dels alumnes (48,6)
Per a superar aquests punts febles, es destaquen clarament dues oportunitats: 1. La situació econòmica mitjana de les famílies que facilita les activitats extraescolars(42,2).
(Estratègies. 1.2)
2. La diversitat cultural que presenta l‟alumnat (42,2).

Reflexions:
-

-

Si bé els recursos que s‟obtinguin a través dels plans de millora continua i del PE poden implicar millorar el servei eficient en el manteniment de tot l‟aparell tecnològic, sembla evident que un nivell de rendes familiars mig és una oportunitat que contribuirà a que tots els aparells que es disposin es puguin utilitzar diàriament.

D‟altra banda, respecte a la millora de les competències lingüístiques, independentment dels programes d‟atenció a la diversitat o la posta en pràctica d‟iniciatives i plans de millora, ens sembla una oportunitat la diversitat cultural present al Centre, que unida a un alumnat poc conflictiu, permet que els departaments abordin sense conflictes els problemes de diversitat social i lingüística.

Les conclusions de l‟AGD presenta una sèrie de punts a millorar en la marxa del Centre. Alguns d‟aquests punts tenen relació amb el seguiment de prestació del Servei (activitats a l‟aula, programacions, tutoria.) i per tant formen part dels aspectes que ja es tenen en compte i que, en tot cas, s‟han de concretar o han de millorar.

Altres aspectes que afecten a la millora en les activitats del Centre tenen a veure directament amb plans que han de ser elaborats en els pròxims anys, i per tant tenen relació directa amb el Pla Estratègic. Aquest aspectes es presentaven en l‟AGD com punts per la millora de la satisfacció dels grups d‟interès i els considerem com a punts dèbils del Centre. Creiem que aquests punts s‟han de tenir molt en compte en l‟elaboració del Pla Estratègic. Hem identificat els següents:

43

-

-

La identificació de les persones amb el Centre.(Estratègies. 3.5) La confiança dels grups d‟interès. S‟inclou aquí “les relacions entre les persones del Centre”, “el funcionament de la informació”, “la responsabilitat i cooperació entre els alumnes i les estratègies per afavorir la convivència en el Centre”, “les normes de convivència”i “l‟impuls de la participació de pares i mares”.

L‟observació de la realitat
La comprensió oral, visual i acústica i la comunicació oral del coneixement i l‟aprenentatge
L‟ús de les TIC en el processament i la producció de la informació La sensibilització multicultural i plurilingüística
El control de la puntualitat
L‟elaboració de projectes i plans de centre (Estratègies. 3.3) La coordinació dels departaments i seminaris i la potenciació del treball en equip del professorat
L‟avaluació periòdica dels plans i projectes
Els plans de formació.
CURS: 2010/11

OBJECTIU
ESTRATÈGIC 1

6.1.4.4 MILLORAR ELS RESULTATS
EDUCATIUS

Codi : 08043981
PONDERACIÓ:4
0%

Característiques de qualitat :
L’objectiu serà de qualitat si millorem els resultats educatius

Indicadors:

Criteris d’acceptació:

% d’alumnes que promociona a l’ESO, Batxillerat i cicles formatius

% >= comparat amb els tres anys anteriors

% d’alumnes amb nota igual o superior al 6 que promociona a 3r d’ESO

RESPONSABLE DE L’OBJECTIU: Coordinadora pedagògica

ESTRATÈGIES

1.1

Implicació de tots els departaments en les competències lingüístiques

1.2

Generalització de les competències TIC a tots els àmbits.

1.3

Reforç de les competències matemàtiques.

1.4

Potenciació l’ensenyament de llengües estrangeres.

1.5

Concreció de plans específics pel tractament de la diversitat.

44

OBJECTIUS ANUALS I ACTIVITATS

Objectiu 1

1
T

2
T

3
T

Augment del tractament transversal de les competències lingüístiques

Indicador
1.1

Realització per part del 80% dels departaments, com a mínim, de tres activitats sobre competències lingüístiques la seva àrea
Identificar les competències lingüístiques que s’han de potenciar (interpretació d’un text, expressió oral, argumentació, organització textual, lectura, etc.) i temporitzar X la seva aplicació als diferents nivells educatius, per part d’un equip de treball

1.2

Els Departaments dissenyaran les activitats didàctiques per treballar les competències identificades, incorporant aquest tipus d’activitat a les programacions i X als instruments d’avaluació.

1.3

Aplicar plans de recuperació i seguiment pels alumnes amb les matèries de català i X X X
castellà pendents (ACI, optatives de reforç, grups flexibles adaptats).

Objectiu 2

Millora dels resultats a les competències lingüístiques

Indicadors

Increment del % d’alumnes aprovats en les matèries de català i castellà, respecte a la mitja dels tres anys anteriors
Millora dels resultats de les proves de competències lingüístiques externes.

1.2.1

Identificar les competències lingüístiques que s’han de potenciar (interpretació d’un text, expressió oral, argumentació, organització textual, lectura, etc.) i temporitzar X la seva aplicació als diferents nivells educatius, per part d’un equip de treball

1.2.2

Els Departaments dissenyaran les activitats didàctiques per treballar les competències identificades, incorporant aquest tipus d’activitat a les programacions i X als instruments d’avaluació

1.2.3

Plans de recuperació i seguiment pels alumnes amb les matèries de català i castellà X X X
pendents (ACI, optatives de reforç, grups flexibles adaptats).

Objectiu 3

Augmentar el tractament transversal de les competències TIC

Indicadors

Realització de
3 activitats trimestrals per Departament relacionades amb les competències TIC.

1.3.1

Identificar les competències TIC i temporitzar la seva aplicació als diferents nivells X
educatius.

1.3.2

Els Departaments aplicaran activitats didàctiques per treballar les competències identificades, incorporant aquest tipus d’activitat a les programacions i als X instrument d’avaluació

45

1.3.3
1.3.4

Posada en funcionament del projecte 1x1, en totes les matèries en el curs de 1r X X X d’ESO.
Elaborar i implantar un protocol de manteniment de l’equipament de l’aula X X X

Objectiu 4

Augmentar el tractament transversal de les competències matemàtica

Indicadors

Realització per part del 80% dels departaments, com a mínim, de tres activitats sobre competències matemàtiques a la seva àrea

1.4.1

Identificar les competències matemàtiques i temporitzar la seva aplicació als diferents nivells educatius per part d’un equip de treball amb representants de l’àrea X de matemàtiques i de totes les altres àrees

1.4.2

Els Departaments aplicaran activitats didàctiques per treballar les competències identificades, incorporant aquest tipus d’activitat a les programacions i als X instrument d’avaluació

Objectiu 5

Millorar els resultats en la matèria de matemàtiques.

Indicadors

Increment del % d’alumnes aprovats en la matèria de matemàtiques respecte a la mitja dels tres anys anteriors
Increment del % d’alumnes que recuperen les pendents e cursos anteriors respecte a la mitja dels tres anys anteriors

1.5.1

Plans de recuperació i seguiment pels alumnes amb les matemàtiques pendents X X X
(ACI, optatives de reforç, grups flexibles adaptats).

46

Objectiu 6

6.1.4.5 MILLORAR ELS RESULTATS EN LA MATÈRIA DE LLENGUA
ANGLESA

Indicadors

% d’aprovats d’expressió oral a la matèria d’anglès superior al 30% a tots els cursos de l’ESO
% d’aprovats de la matèria d’anglès a tota l’ESO respecte a la mitja dels tres cursos anteriors

1.6.1

Dedicació exclusiva d’una hora a la setmana de l’alumnat a la pràctica de X X X
competències comunicatives orals, amb el suport d’un/a assistent de conversa

1.6.2

Pla d’ensenyament de l’anglès a la matèria de socials a 2n, 3r i 4t d’ESO.

1.6.3

Intercanvi d’estudiants amb l’estranger que es realitza a 3r d’ESO amb l’ inclusió de dues activitats difusores de l’experiència a 2n (amb alumnes i famílies participants en anys anteriors), i una a 3r durant el 1r trimestre

X X X
X X

Objectiu 7

Millorar les actuacions en l’atenció de la diversitat.

Indicador

% de millora de resultats en totes les matèries pels alumnes amb atenció a la diversitat respecte a la mitja dels tres anys anteriors

1.7.1

Elaboració de material de totes les matèries per als alumnes amb dificultats X
d’aprenentatge de 1r i 2n d’ESO

1.7.2

Creació d’un protocol
d’aprenentatge

d’actuació

per

atendre

l’alumnat

Objectiu 8

dificultats

X X

Millorar l’orientació als alumnes de 3r, 4t, batxillerat i cicles

Indicador

amb

Grau de satisfacció de les famílies i alumnes superior a 5

1.8.1

Fer reunions personalitzades a 3r d’ESO amb els pares dels alumnes que superin els X X X
16 anys i orientar-los cap altres estudis

1.8.2

Fer una reunió amb les famílies dels alumnes de 4t d’ESO per informar sobre els cicles formatius i els diferents batxillerats, i elaborar documentació sobre aquests continguts.

X

1.8.3

Fer xerrades sobre els possibles itineraris de 4t d’ESO als alumnes de 3r, i de les modalitats de batxillerat als alumnes de 4t d’ESO i 1r de batxillerat

X

47

1.8.4

Fer reunions alumne-tutor i xerrades orientatives sobre els cicles de grau superior als alumnes de batxillerat i cicles formatius de grau mitjà

X

CURS: 2010/11
OBJECTIU
ESTRATÈGIC 2

6.1.4.6 MILLORAR LA COHESIÓ SOCIAL

Codi :08043981
PONDERACIÓ:3
0%

Característiques de qualitat :
L’objectiu serà de qualitat si millorem la convivència

Indicadors:

Criteris d’acceptació:

Nombre de comunicats de conducta contrària
relacionats amb conflictes entre alumnes

Reduir el nombre de conductes contràries comparat amb
els tres anys anteriors

Reducció del número d’alumnes que abandona el
sistema educatiu
RESPONSABLE DE L’OBJECTIU: Cap d’estudis

ESTRATÈGIES

2.1

Potenciació el coneixement d’altres cultures i realitats socials

2.2

Potenciació de la col·laboració i el treball en equip

2.3

Potenciació de l’orientació amb família i alumnes

2.4

Pla de millora en la col·laboració de les famílies

1
T

OBJECTIUS ANUALS I ACTIVITATS

2
T

3
T

Objectiu 9

Treballar la diversitat tant a la tutoria com a d’altres matèries

Indicadors

Grau de satisfacció de les activitats realitzades, ja sigui a tutoria, com a d’altres matèries, superior a 5.

2.1.1

Incloure activitats de diversitat cultural a les festes de Sant Jordi, Nadal i de X X X
final de curs

48

2.1.2

Precisar els continguts dels coneixements d’altres cultures i dels problemes interculturals a les matèries d’educació etico-cívica, educació per la ciutadania, X X X i ciències socials de 3r i 4t d’ESO

2.1.3

Precisar activitats al PAT de l’ESO sobre conflictes interculturals

2.1.4

Optativa no curricular que treballi aspectes sobre altres cultures, una entre 1r X X X
i 2n d’ESO, i una altra entre 3r i 4t

X X

Objectiu 10 Desenvolupar la interacció entre els alumnes del centre. Indicador

Grau de satisfacció de les accions i activitats realitzades que impliquin alumnes de diferents grups, superior a 5

2.2.1

Activitat anual conjunta de tots els grups d’un mateix nivell, potenciant la interacció entre alumnes de diferents grups

2.2.2

Crear la figura del company acollidor que ajudarà als alumnes nouvinguts, i X X X
establir un protocol d’actuació

2.2.3

Difusió de l’aula de convivència i del servei de mediació a tot el centre a X
principi de curs.

X

Objectiu 11 Millorar la integració i cohesió social en el grup classe Indicador

Grau de satisfacció dels professors implicats en activitats de treball en equip al grup classe, superior a 5

2.3.1

Aplicar activitats per treballar en equip en els grups classe on l’equip docent X X X
detecti conflictivitat

Objectiu 12 Incrementar i millorar la qualitat de la informació rebuda Indicador
3.2.
1

Grau de satisfacció de les famílies en la informació rebuda i en l’atenció a les seves suggerències

Detectar i corregir necessitats i mancances d’informació a partir de les enquestes.

49

X X X

3.2.
2

Establir protocol per atendre les suggerències.

X X

CURS: 2010/11
OBJECTIU
ESTRATÈGIC 3

6.1.4.7 MILLORAR LA CONFIANÇA DELS
GRUPS D‟INTERÈS (ALUMNAT,
FAMÍLIES, EMPRESES)

Codi :08043981
PONDERACIÓ:3
0%

Característiques de qualitat :

Indicadors:

Grau de satisfacció dels grups d’interès

Criteris d’acceptació:
>= 60%

RESPONSABLE DE L’OBJECTIU: Cap d’estudis adjunta

ESTRATÈGIES

3.1 Potenciació de la relació amb les empreses
3.2 Incrementar la projecció del centre en la vila
3.3 Elaboració i revisió de la documentació bàsica
3.4 Implementació d’un sistema de gestió de la qualitat basat en la norma ISO 9001:2008 3.5 Potenciar les relacions amb la comunitat educativa

1
T

OBJECTIUS ANUALS I ACTIVITATS

Objectiu
13
Indicador

Millorar la relació amb les empreses
Grau de satisfacció de les empreses respecte als tres anys anteriors.

50

2
T

3
T

3.1.
1

Definir les necessitats i registrar-les en una base de dades

3.1.
2

Elaboració de protocols de seguiment de les FCT.

Objectiu
14

X X
X X

Donar a conèixer el centre al municipi

Indicador Nombre de notícies relacionades amb el centre en diaris de caire regional (mínim de 3 per any)
s
3.2.
1

Pla d’activitats culturals i esportives obertes al poble

3.2.
2

Mostra gastronòmica oberta a la vila

3.2.
3

Fer un tríptic informatiu del centre

3.2.
4

Potenciar la imatge corporativa amb la pàgina wiki del centre.

Objectiu
15

X X X
X
X
X X X

Treballar per obtenir La certificació ISO

Indicador Resoldre les disconformitats en menys d’un any
s
3.4.
1

Posada en funcionament del gestor documental

3.3.
1

Elaborar el PCC

3.3.
2

Revisió dels documents estratègics

51

X X X

Objectiu
16

Millorar la puntualitat del centre

Indicador Grau de satisfacció de l’alumnat
3.5.
1

Implantar un sistema de crida en les entrades i sortides de classe

3.5.
2

Fer un protocol d’entrada i control de canvi de classes

X X X
X X X

52

6.1.5 PROJECTE LINGÜÍSTIC DE CENTRE
Extracts from the school‟s Projecte Lingüístic de Centre (IES Joan Ramon Benaprès 2010)

0. Introducció
El Projecte Lingüístic de Centre pretén establir un diagnòstic i establir criteris sobre el tractament de les diverses llengües que, a nivells diferents, són usades o objecte d‟aprenentatge en el centre. El seu objectiu és, per tant, definir la posició i les línies d‟actuació del centre respecte a diversos temes com ara el paper de la llengua vehicular, el tractament de les llengües curriculars i els aspectes d‟organització i de gestió que tinguin repercussions lingüístiques.

Aquest document substitueix l‟anterior projecte fet als anys 90 i que actualment ha quedat obsolet i s‟ha concebut com una eina de reflexió que ens proporcioni un diagnòstic i unes pautes per dissenyar els plans anuals d‟actuació.

1. Context sociolingüístic

1.1.

Procedència i entorn de l‟alumnat

L'alumnat del centre prové majoritàriament del municipi de Sitges, encara que també n'hi ha una part significativa que provenen d'altres localitats de l'entorn com ara Ribes, Olivella, Vilanova i la Geltrú i altres pobles del Garraf. El nivell socioeconòmic dels alumnes del centre reflecteix el del seu entorn, amb una majoria d‟alumnes de famílies de classe mitjana, alguns alumnes de família mitjana-alta, i uns quants de famílies d‟extracció social baixa. Per analitzar les dades de procedència dels alumnes utilitzarem com a exemple les dades dels cursos 2008-9 i 2009-2010. En el curs el centre tenia 666 alumnes, dels quals 152 procedien de famílies de fora de l‟estat espanyol, 37 d‟Europa o Amèrica del Nord, 95 de Sud o Centreamèrica, 11 d‟Àfrica i 9 d‟Àsia. El percentatge d‟alumnes provinents de l‟estranger era, per tant, el 22%. Si ens limitem als alumnes únicament d‟ESO i que es puguin considerar nouvinguts eren 15 en aquell curs, amb una composició per origen de 9 alumnes provinents de Sud o Centreamèrica, 4 d‟Àsia, 1 d‟Europa i un altre d‟Àfrica. Al curs 2009-2010, la quantitat d‟alumnes nouvinguts s‟ha mantingut: 53

16 alumnes. La seva procedència és també similar al curs anterior: 9 vénen de Centre o Sud-americà, 4 d‟Àsia, 1 d‟Europa i 2 del Nord d‟Àfrica. 1.2.

Usos lingüístics de l‟alumnat

Pel que fa als usos lingüístics les dades que donarem a continuació s‟han extret d‟un estudi estadístic realitzat al centre el curs 2008-2009 a tot l'alumnat d'ESO, Batxillerat i Cicles de l'Institut i que es pot consultar amb més detall a l‟Annex I i II d‟aquest Projecte.

Segons s‟extreu d‟aquest estudi el 50 % dels alumnes de l‟Institut tenen com a llengua materna el castellà, el 21% el català, el 21% totes dues i el 8% una altra llengua. Aquesta diferència a favor del castellà s‟iguala al Batxillerat (amb un 39% de castellà i un 37% de català com a llengua materna) i és molt més acusada als cicles formatius, amb un 80% de tenen el castellà com a llengua familiar. Les dades recollides, tot i ser incompletes, ens han permès confirmar alguns fets evidents i constatar d'altres no tan evidents que volem compartir amb vosaltres.

El 47% dels alumnes fa servir només el castellà per parlar entre ells. Que parlin gairebé sempre o majoritàriament en català n‟hi ha un 16%. Els qui parlen el català i el castellà entre ells són el 36%. El 2% fa servir una altra llengua. Veiem per tant que l‟ús amb els companys i la llengua familiar són similars, encara que a l‟Institut els alumnes tendeixen a usar més el castellà.

Amb els professors la llengua més usada pels alumnes és el català (40%), el 20% es dirigeix als docents sempre en castellà i la resta (40%) ho fan en les dues llengües. Resulta significatiu el descens en l‟ús del català a mesura que passen de curs. Així a primer cicle constatem que els alumnes entren parlant majoritàriament català amb els professors (70%) i després aquest percentatge disminueix: 35% a segon cicle, 48% a Batxillerat, 0% a Cicles Formatius.

Pel que respecta als mitjans audiovisuals que els alumnes miren o escolten són majoritàriament en castellà (73%). En un 9% són gairebé sempre en català i en el 15% dels casos són en les dues llengües. Un 3% consumeix mitjans en altres idiomes.

En conclusió, veiem que la llengua materna predominant en els nostres alumnes és el castellà, que en el seu ús entre ells en el centre aquesta 54

tendència encara augmenta i que també es tendeix amb el temps a abandonar el català com a llengua vehicular amb els professors. Les causes d‟aquests resultats són diverses i no sempre atribuïbles a la dinàmica del centre, perquè corresponen amb una dinàmica social generalitzada al nostre entorn. De tota manera, el centre ha de vetllar per educar els alumnes, nouvinguts o no, perquè percebin el català com a llengua útil, ja que contribueix a la cohesió social i a les seves possibilitats professionals i personals.

6.1.5.1 4. ALTRES LLENGÜES
4.1. Estratègies generals per a l’assoliment de l’objectiu de l’etapa 4.1.1. Desplegament del currículum
Tot i que hi ha continuïtat de la major part del professorat i una certa coordinació entre cicles, fóra bo que es dissenyessin situacions d'aprenentatge globals en què l'ús motivat i reflexiu de les estratègies lingüístiques i comunicatives donessin resposta a les necessitats que té l'alumnat, que reflecteixen un nivell baix de coneixement de la llengua anglesa en la meitat d'aquest. Per millorar el coneixement de la llengua estrangera, la principal estratègia que segueix el centre és utilitzar el desdoblament d'1/3 de les hores per potenciar la comunicació oral. Aquest curs també s'ha incorporat l'ús del llibre digital i de portàtils en un grup de 2n d'ESO en coexistència amb el llibre i les activitats tradicionals.

4.1.2. Metodologia
Tot i que hi ha un enfocament comunicatiu de l'ensenyament de la segona i tercera llengua, hauria de millorar la coordinació efectiva entre el professorat de llengües estrangeres al centre. La competència oral es treballa, encara que no coordinadament, en els desdoblaments, però no es pot treballar adequadament en els grups-classe no desdoblats a causa del nombre elevat d‟alumnes per classe.

4.1.3. Materials didàctics per a l’aprenentatge de la llengua estrangera Periòdicament es revisen i es consensuen els llibres de text i els materials didàctics que es faran servir el curs següent segons les necessitats de l'alumnat. Es preveuen materials didàctics per ensenyar l'alumnat amb nivell més baix de llengua estrangera. S‟haurien de preveure materials que servissin per l'ampliació dels coneixements.

4.1.4. Recursos tecnològics per a l’aprenentatge de la llengua estrangera

55

El centre ha entès que la utilització dels recursos tecnològics permet atendre la diversitat de l'alumnat i n'explora noves possibilitats. Una part del professorat de llengües estrangeres ha entès aquesta oportunitat i n'explora individualment noves possibilitats.

4.1.5. L’ús de la llengua estrangera a l’aula
Tot i que hi ha prevista la potenciació de la llengua estrangera en les interaccions tant formals com informals, la projecció dels resultats del treball curricular fora de l'aula d'aprenentatge només es el resultat de la iniciativa individual d'una part del professorat.

4.2. Estratègies d’ampliació de l’oferta de llengües estrangeres El centre ofereix el francès com a segona llengua estrangera dins de l'optativitat de l'ESO i el Batxillerat.

4.2.1. Aprenentatge integrat de continguts i llengua estrangera El centre imparteix els continguts d'un trimestre de Socials a un grup de 2n i un grup de 3r d'ESO en anglès, dins del programa PELE (Pla Experimental de Llengües Estrangeres). A tal efecte, la persona directament relacionada amb l'ensenyament d'aquests continguts ha realitzat la formació pertinent i voluntària a Anglaterra. L'elecció de l'àrea de Socials ve determinada perquè és una àrea no lingüística, disposàvem d'un professor capacitat per fer-ho i amb voluntat de ferho, els continguts de geografia són prou visuals com per no oferir una dificultat excessiva a l'alumnat en l'adquisició dels objectius de l'àrea i el nivell de llengua anglesa utilitzat es correlacionava amb el de l'alumnat.

4.2.2. Llengües complementàries procedents de la nova immigració El centre no té prevista la realització de classes de llengua d'origen en horari extraescolar, però en fa un ús simbòlic i s'utilitzen per treballar la dimensió plurilingüe i intercultural del currículum, ja que s'entén que, a partir de la valoració d'aquestes llengües i cultures, es valora la llengua i cultura catalanes i es potencien les actituds cap a persones que les parlen, les quals, a la seva vegada, també se senten reconegudes.

56

6.1.6 : PLA DE MILLORA DEL SERVEI DE MEDIACIÓ I CONVIVÈNCIA Extracts from the school‟s Pla de millora del servei de mediació i convivència escolar
(IES Joan Ramon Benaprès, Sitges 2010)

2. PROPÒSIT DEL PLA DE MILLORA
-

Crear i dinamitzar d'un espai físic per millorar la convivència escolar al Centre
Prevenir i/o solucionar possibles problemes de convivència dins la comunitat educativa del Centre
Millorar les relacions de convivència dins la comunitat educativa Desenvolupar diferents estratègies a tot l‟alumnat per a millorar la convivència i les relacions entre els companys/es

1. FINALITAT DEL PLA
-

La creació i dinamització del Servei de Convivència per millorar la convivència escolar al Centre
La prevenció i/o resolució de possibles problemes de convivència dins la comunitat educativa del Centre
La millora de les relacions de convivència dins la comunitat educativa El desenvolupament de diferents estratègies a tot l‟alumnat per a millorar la convivència i les relacions entre els companys/es

2. FONAMENTACIÓ DEL PLA DE MILLORA
El pla de millora definitiu es fonamenta en l‟autoavaluació (i/o en l‟avaluació global diagnòstica (AGD) que realitza el servei d‟inspecció). Per formular els objectius de millora, ens hem basat en una anàlisi interna del centre, realitzat per l‟equip

57

directiu; en el qual hem tingut present els següents factors externs i interns al centre.

4.1 ANÀLISI DELS FACTORS EXTERNS
1

Col·laboració amb l‟Ajuntament
Professorat format en la Mediació escolar

1

Manca d‟ús d‟aquest servei per part de l‟alumnat i professorat

2

Manca d‟estabilitat del professorat implicat

3

Amenaces

2
3

Oportunitats

L‟optimització de l‟espai del centre

Manca de mediadors/es

4.2 ANÀLISI DELS FACTORS INTERNS
1

Existència d‟una comissió de convivència

2

Implicació per part de l‟equip directiu

1

Necessitat de millorar la coordinació amb la Cap d‟Estudis

2

Desconeixement dels beneficis de la mediació per part del
professorat i alumnat

Punts Forts
(Fortaleses)

Punts febles
(Dificultats)

5 OBJECTIUS
6.1.7 OBJECTIUS

6.1.8 ORIGEN (*)

1. Cooperar en la gestió de conflictes amb l‟equip directiu

Comissió
Convivència

de

2. Prevenir i/o solucionar conflictes de convivència al Centre

Comissió
Convivència

de

3. Educar per a ser assertius

Comissió
Convivència

de

58

4. Fomentar el diàleg, la cooperació i la responsabilitat

Comissió
Convivència

de

5. Contribuir a la relació entre els diferents estaments de la comunitat escolar

Comissió
Convivència

de

6. Desenvolupar habilitats per fer front per si mateixos a
futurs conflictes

Comissió
Convivència

de

(*) Origen del objectiu: Dept. Educació (DdE), Claustre del centre, Anàlisi intern (FO, F-A, D-O, D-A), altres.

6 DESPLEGAMENT DEL PLA

OBJECTIUS

ESTRATÈGIES

1. Cooperar en la gestió de 1.1. Treballar i reunir-se setmanalment amb la Cap d‟Estudis per tractar possibles problemes
conflictes amb l‟equip directiu
de convivència.
2.
Prevenir
conflictes de
Centre

i/o
solucionar 2.1. Treballar les tècniques d‟aprendre a
convivència al aprendre, que implicarà en l‟alumne/a:
- Saber argumentar
- Saber escoltar
- Estimular el raonament
- Tenir esperit crític i opinions pròpies

3. Educar per a ser assertius
4. Fomentar el diàleg,
cooperació i la responsabilitat

3.1. Col·laborar en el desenvolupament de la
personalitat de l‟alumne/a.
la 4.1. Assumir els valors de respecte i diàleg per
presidir les relacions personals entre l‟alumnat i
professorat.

59

5. Contribuir a la relació entre els 5.1. Promoure els valors que facilitin la diferents
estaments
de
la convivència: l‟esperit crític, la tolerància, la
responsabilitat, el respecte a les persones i als
comunitat escolar
equipaments del centre com a pas
indispensable per la formació cívica de la
persona.
5.2. Organitzar activitats
programes de convivència.

i

participar

en

6. Desenvolupar habilitats per fer 6.1. Fomentar la participació de l‟alumnat en front per si mateixos a futurs activitats destinades a desenvolupar habilitats conflictes
per fer front per si mateixos a futurs conflictes.

60

6.2 Teaching Units

61

CLASS

DURATION

TERM

ACADEMIC YEAR

TEACHER

BAT 1C IES Benaprès 6 x 55 min sessions

Third term

2010-2011

Foreign Language Teacher

SUBJECT

TITLE AND PURPOSE OF THE UNIT

English Language

Yes we can? A discussion of how we may be able to promote and influence change in our society. The purpose of this teaching unit is to explore examples of how people can promote social change. We will examine the increasing role of communication technology and associated social networks in lobbying and awareness raising and make predictions about possible future developments.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

KEY COMPETENCES

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 Participate in conversations about current affairs and
personal interests.

Communication

 Understands without too much difficulty the instructions and explanations given by the teacher and those found in the class materials.  Understands the general ideas and essential details of the narrations and explanations in authentic oral English in digital format.

 Initiates and maintains simple informal conversations.
 Identifies difficulties in the flow of conversation and takes appropriate action to repair the detected problems.
 Participates in conversations and debates, exchanging ideas and opinions, reaching agreement and briefly expressing their own opinion.  Makes brief, previously prepared, oral presentations about current affairs, and is able to capture and maintain the audience‟s interest.  In depth understanding of texts of an appropriate difficulty and carries out associated tasks.

 Understands the general meaning of genuine news items.
 Produce a coherent, well ordered short text on a subject of interest with a basic level of correctness.
 Cooperates with colleagues in learning tasks, shows they able to be responsible and organised, sharing information and evaluating the way the team works.
 Use the knowledge acquired about the English language in different contexts as an instrument for reflexive, autonomous learning.  Participates in the self-evaluation and correction of own work and that of others in English.

 Understand key concepts of current affairs from oral
and textual sources, with the use of different aids
(dictionaries, subtitles, glossaries etc).
 Reflect upon the use of language in these sources
with the goal of improving one‟s own language use.

Participation in oral written and
audiovisual interactions.
Understanding oral, written and
audiovisual discourses.
Production of oral and written
discourses.

 Critical awareness of one‟s own learning processes
and strategies. Understand those of others.
 Produce oral and written messages that are both
accurate and adequate.
 Adequate use of comprehension strategies when
interpreting authentic messages.
 Adopt a positive attitude towards the group‟s capacity to promote change.
 Awareness of the changing paradigm of social
lobbying through ICT and the strength of networking.
 Use different habits and tools to attribute importance
to metacognitive processes.

Research
handling

and

information

Efficient use of material to find
information and to improve
expression
and
comprehension. Collaborative
teamwork to solve tasks.

Plurilingual and intercultural
Reflection
upon
cultural
similarities and differences.

(Please see attached Excel sheet for weighting)

62

CONTENTS
This teaching unit seeks to continue and build upon the exploratory work carried out with the group in which we explored the Paper Clips Project and Blood Diamonds, the last session finished with a 2 minute viewing of the beginning of Bono‟sTED talk as a taster for the next session. This teaching unit proposes to explore two projects: One and Avaaz . (Should either of these fail to interest the students Semco will be used as an alternative). Whilst the initial plan is to dedicate three sessions to each topic, according to the students‟ response to the proposed activities they will either carried over to the following class or a new direction of student initiated exploration and debate will be followed. The course book will be the final back-up resource. Students will be introduced to reflexive, partially scripted, learning journals and will be expected to make active, critical use of them. They will be discussed and peer evaluated throughout the unit and assessed by the group and the teacher at the end of it. METHODOLOGY AND SEQUENCING

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES

RESOURCES

GROUPING TIMING ATTENDING TO
DIVERSITY

INITIAL

55 min

 Recapping of and comments on previous sessions. (5min)
Phase 1
Session 1

 Presentation of Teaching Unit proposed structure, goals, timing and evaluation criteria. Introduction to learning journals(10min)

 Powerpoint presentation

 Brain storm on what is known about Bono‟s work and create mind map on digital board (5min)

 Mind map bubbl.us/

 1st viewing of excerpt of Bono‟sTED talk : students take notes and answer written questions on gist in 3 levels (10min)

 Bono‟sTED talk

 2nd viewing of Bono‟sTED talk with of subtitle gap fill exercise, correction and focus on stumbling blocks (15min)

 Gap fill exercise with
groups
subtitled video created using
Windows Movie Maker
Individual
 Individual Learning Journals

whole class

pairs
whole class
pairs

 Structured reflections in individual journals (5min)

(next session is one hour later, so no homework)

63

 The students will
work in
heterogeneous pairs
and groups in order
that they compliment
and contrast
interests, ICT
abilities, English
language skills and
behaviour.
 All tasks will be
developed for three
different levels of
ability.
 Learning journals
will be a key
element to help
each individual
document and
assess their learning
process.

 Recap of session one hour before, review of Mindmap (5min) DEVELOP
MENT
Phase 1
Session2

 Mind map bubbl.us/

 Groups receive statements about ONE to scan and annotate 
(10m)
 Groups now have to discuss possible outcomes, consequences and propose new actions. (10 min)

 Round the table summary by groups also fed into mindmap, and vocabulary structures bank. (10 min)


 Visit ONE.org and set written task for homework: students will watch Living Proof videos. Then, with reference to class

mindmap and vocab/structure bank, they will summarise with
personal comments (100 -150 words) and then post these on
BenapresEnglish Wiki.(10 min)

 Watch short excerpt from Living Proof as example/ inspiration for homework (5min)

whole class
groups of 4

Adapted texts from ONE
Class vocab/ structures bank
use of gerund and infinitive.
whole class
Mind map bubbl.us/
Class vocab/ structures bank pairs

ONE.org
individual

BenapresEnglish

 Recap of previous class and share experiences with
BenapresEnglish wiki. (5 min)

Phase 1
Session 3

 Living Proof

 Individual Learning Journals whole class

 Peer correction of Wiki posts. Individual correction of work of partner assigned according to chosen area of interest. (5 min)  Correction feedback to partner with suggestions for
improvement in pairs (10 min)

 The group will
develop the
vocabulary and
lexical structures
discovered
throughout the
project.
 Six students have
expressed an
interest to sit 1st
Certificate exams in
June. They will
receive accordingly
graded tasks in
class and via the
class Wiki.

whole class

 Structured reflections in individual journals (5min)

FINAL
ACTIVITY

55 min

Individual

 Class held in computer room.
Mindmap bubbl.us/

individual

 Class vocab/ structures bank
use of gerund and infinitive.

 Peer coaching will
be actively used to
support weaker
students.

pairs

whole class
 Review of doubts and queries: use of language, use of
structures, vocabulary etc (10min)
 BenapresEnglish
individual
 Improvement of Wiki posts and creation of final version (15 min)  Group discusses experience, presentation of next phase (5min) whole class
 Individual Learning Journals
 Structured reflections in individual journals (5min)
individual

64

INITIAL
Phase 2
Session 1

 Recap of previous class and then share and review posts on BenapresEnglish. Discuss opinions and experience with
learning journals (15 min)

 Individual Learning Journals Whole class
 BenapresEnglish
.
 Mindmap bubbl.us/
 Present Phase 2. Brain storm + web visits of web actions/ organisations that have provoked change. Teacher as secretary  Class vocab/ structures bank or student mindmaps on digital board (10 min)

use of gerund and infinitive.
 1st view AVAAZ “Stop the clash of civilizations” video. Students take notes and answer written questions on gist in 3 levels
Discuss in groups. (10 min)
 Round the table summary by groups also fed into mindmap, and vocabulary structures bank. (10 min)
 Groups receive summary of an AVAAZ campaign and reading
comprehension style multiple choice task (15min)
 Structured reflections in individual journals (5min)

 AVAAZ “Stop the clash of
civilizations video

Groups of 4

Whole class

 Mindmap bubbl.us/

Groups of 4

 Adapted texts from AVAAZ
campaigns

Individual

(next session is one hour later, so no homework)
DEVELOP
MENT
Phase 2
Session 2

55 min

 Individual Learning Journals

 Recap of session one hour before, review of Mindmap (5 min)

 Mindmap bubbl.us/

 Groups complete reading task on an AVAAZ campaign and
prepare a short oral presentation of key points, their opinions and reactions. (15 min)

Groups of 4
 Adapted texts from AVAAZ
campaigns. Focus on use of .
gerund and infinitive

Whole class 55 min

Whole class

 Groups give their oral presentations. (20 min)
 View Global Wake-Up Call and review class and set written task for homework: students are to propose a new campaign subject  Global Wake-Up Call or review process of existing campaigns and then post their

essays(100 -150 words) on BenapresEnglish Wiki.(10 min)
 BenapresEnglish
 Reflections in individual journals (5min)

65

Individual

FINAL
ACTIVITY
Phase 2
Session 3

 Recap of previous class and share experiences with
BenapresEnglish wiki. (5 min)
 Peer correction of Wiki posts. Individual correction of work of partner assigned according to chosen area of interest. (5 min)  Correction feedback to partner with suggestions for
improvement in pairs (10 min)
 Review of , doubts and queries: use of language, use of
structures, vocabulary etc (10min)

 Individual Learning Journals

55 min
whole class

 Class held in computer room. individual
Mindmap bubbl.us/
 Class vocab/ structures
bank, use of gerund and
infinitive.

pairs

whole class

 BenapresEnglish

individual

 Improvement of Wiki posts and creation of final version (15 min) whole class

 Group discussion of experience (5 min)

individual

Structured reflections in individual journals (5min)
Individual Learning Journals

66

Resources
Initial presentation:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Initial%20pres%20BAT%201C.pptx

ONE: first viewing:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/ONE%20intro%20no%20subs.wmv

AVAAZ: Wake-up call

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/The%20Global%20Climate%20Wake-Up%20Call.flv

ONE video activity

1:
2:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/ONE%20intro%20gaps.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/ONE%20intro%20subs.wmv

Bono‟s TED talk activity

1:
2:
3:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/bono%20no%20subs.wmv
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/Bono%20gap%20fill.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/videos/bono%20subs.mp4

Reading Comprehension test

Class Wikispace

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/BAT%201C%20AVAAZ%20test.docx

http://benapresenglish.wikispaces.com/

67

PowerPoint “Yes we can” http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Teaching%20Unit%20BAT%201C/Initial%20pres%20BAT%201C.pptx

Be responsible for
your own learning

Yes we can?

How do I learn?
What do I want to do?
What options did I have?
What did I do well? What can I improve?

What would I do differently next time, why?

Six sessions to talk about if we
can influence change in our world...

Six sessions to talk about if we

Six sessions to talk about if we
can influence change in our world...

can influence change in our world...

How do I pass?

BAT 1C
Teaching Unit : "Yes we can?"
Peter Hone

Final Grade
Writing: Wikis
Reading: comprehension tasks
Listening: comprehension tasks
Speaking: oral presentations
Individual Learning Journals
Other Criteria based in Key Competences

100
25%
10%
10%
15%
20%
20%

68

Examples of video gap-fill activities linked to the Powerpoint presentations

69

Examples of Discussion Texts

70

CLASS

DURATION

TERM

ACADEMIC YEAR

TEACHER

ESO 3AIES Benaprès

6 x 55 min sessions

Third term

2010-2011

Foreign Languages Teacher

SUBJECT

TITLE AND PURPOSE OF THE UNIT

English Language

Facebook. The purpose of this teaching unit is to explore our relationships through this online social network, its changing role in our society and how it can affect us.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

KEY COMPETENCES

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 Participate in conversations about social networks
and personal interests.
 Express ideas and personal conceptions in oral and
written interactions.
 Adequate use of comprehension strategies when
interpreting authentic or semi-authentic messages.
 Produce oral and written messages that are both
accurate and adequate.
 Improve abilities in English as a source of pleasure
and personal growth.
 Independent and critical use of social media and ITC
to present ideas and feelings about our relationships
with and through social networks.
 Consider the ethical aspects of social networks.
 Awareness of the changing paradigm of social
relationships through ICT and the strength,
importance and potential of networking.
 Awareness of and reflexion upon individual and
group learning processes.
 Use different habits and tools to attribute importance
to metacognitive processes.

Oral
communication
competence (developing and
expressing ideas, opinions
and feelings)
Written
communication
competence
(Production,
communication and creation
related with oral interaction).
Audiovisual (Productions and
creations in digital format
related with oral interactions)
Learning to learn (Reflexive
use of different learning skills
and strategies).

 Participates actively and reflexively in basic oral, written and audiovisual interactions in English to achieve understandable communication, making use of strategies to overcome interruptions and to initiate and conclude communicative exchanges.

 Understand the general idea of and specific messages in authentic and semi-authentic oral English in digital format about subjects of interest from personal and educational ambits.
 Produce, with some guidance, written texts, both oral and written in English showing awareness of tone and structure, lexis and an adequate use of connectors. Use of formal aspects and respect for the fundamental rules for written language to assure a correct relationship between ideas, making them comprehensible for the receiver...  Participate in the self-evaluation and correction of one‟s own work and that of others in English.

 Show willingness to participate in group work.

Handling
of
digital  Organise information in accordance with established criteria. information and tools.
 Selection of information
 Relating information with the achievement of pre-established goals Handling and communication  Using a correct format for communication of information with digital tools
 Presentation of results
in digital environments.
 Safe, critical use of digital environments
Responsible participation in
social and cultural practices in
a knowledge filled society
Social
education
Citizenship

and  Responsible use of Social Networks and awareness of safety and privacy issues and how to act accordingly.
 Team work and being responsible within the team
 .Expressing the right to have a say in decisions that affect us

71

CONTENTS
This teaching unit will begin with a group reflection on Facebook and its meaning for the students. We will then explore the use of and issues surrounding Facebook through the use of genuine interviews, articles and the film “The Social Network.” We will then work with several “Facebook Stories” and students will produce their own “Facebook Story” in pairs. They will present them to their colleagues in the last session. This teaching unit is linked to content of Unit 6 “Your Future” of English Alive 3 (Oxford). Expressing opinions about the future and probability. The structure is designed to be flexible in accordance with the students‟ reception of and response to the proposed activities. As the need arises these will either be carried over to the following class, or a new area of exploration and debate will be introduced for each session. All activities are designed to have at least three levels of difficulty in order to cater for the considerable range in ability that exists within this group. Students will be introduced to learning journals and will be expected to make active use of them. They will be discussed and peer evaluated throughout the unit and assessed by the group and the teacher at the end of it.

METHODOLOGY AND SEQUENCING
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES
INITIAL
Session 1

 Presentation of Teaching Unit theme, goals, methodology, evaluation criteria, timing and use of learning journals.
(10min)

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES GROUPING TIMING ATTENDING TO
DIVERSITY

 Warm up activity: “Brainstorming, What do we know about  Brainstorming bubbl.us/ (1)
Facebook? What is Facebook for me?” Collect ideas in mind  Powerpoint with prompts map on digital board with Bubbl.us and discuss process
(10min)
 Video YouTube. View, view with gap fill, view with complete  Facebook video 1: Gap fill subtitles, comment and note down vocabulary and structures
exercise with subtitled video
(10 min)
created using Windows
Movie Maker
 Facebook, me and my friends: reading and writing activity  Hand-outs
(20min)
 Class vocabulary/ structures
bank
 Structured reflections in individual journals(5min)
 Individual Learning Journals
Homework: search for interesting ideas about Facebook and
post on class Wiki.

55 min

PowerPoint presentation
 Digital White Board
whole class

whole class

pairs

Individual

 The students will be
work in
heterogeneous
pairs in order that
they compliment
and contrast
interests, ITC
abilities, English
language skills and
behaviour.
 Learning journals
will be a key
element to help
each individual to
document and
assess their
learning process
and to
consequently
become more

72

DEVELOP
MENT
Session 2

 Recap of previous class and then review and discuss
homework posts on class Wiki. (10 min)

 Watch excerpt from “The Social Network”, check for gist exercise and discuss. Structures on whiteboard (10min)
 Reading and Speaking activity: Funny things that have
happened to people on Facebook (15 min)

 Class Wiki BenapresEnglish

proactive.

55 min
 Group Wiki
 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/ Whole class
 Class vocabulary/ structures
bank
 Pre-edited excerpt from film
and exercises.

pairs

 2 Hand-outs with texts and
game. First activity reading to
and discussing with partner.
Second partner has to story Whole class
 Second video excerpt from “The Social Network” with Justin guess from outcome clues.
Timberlake! : view, gap-fill subtitles, full subtitles (15 min)  Reflections in individual journals (5min)

 3 versions pre-edited

 The group will
develop the
vocabulary and
lexical structures
discovered
throughout the
project.
 All activities are
designed to have at
least three levels of
difficulty in order to
cater for the
considerable range
in ability that exists
within this group.

Individual

 Individual Learning Journals

DEVELOP
MENT
Session 3

 Recap of previous class and then review and discuss
homework posts on class Wiki. (5 min)

 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/ Whole class 55min
 Class vocabulary/ structures
bank

 The 93 dollar club. Watch for gist with questionnaire,
answer questions in pairs, then complete subs and

The 93 Dollar club
comment (15min)
 Reading and speaking activity with Facebook stories(10min)  Writing Activity “My favourite Facebook” story, start now  http://stories.facebook.com/
finish for homework and bring to next class (10min)
 Video fun activity “Avril Lavigne, I will be” + subs (10min)  Reflections in individual journals (5min)

Pairs

Individual

 Avril Lavigne, I will be

Whole class

 Individual Learning Journals

Individual

73

 Should the need
arise the need arise
peer coaching will
be used to support
the least able
students.
 Four students have
been working with
Peter Hone to
prepare for the First
Certificate exams in
June. They will
receive accordingly
graded tasks in
class and via the
class Wiki.

 Recap of previous class (5min)

DEVELOP
MENT
Session 4

 Review of favourite stories, share briefly then peer
correction of texts and discussion. Then interchange pairs to comment on (and improve) stories. (20min)
 Road trip. Watch for gist, answer questions, then error
exercise, watch with complete subs and comment (15min)
 Brainstorm: what is the most amazing thing could we do with Facebook? To be developed for homework. (Next class bring
most amazing example and an idea) (5 min)
 Grammar/ structures check: future, probability (5 min)
 Reflections in individual journals (5min)

DEVELOP
MENT
Session 5

 Recap of previous class, discuss and update learning
journals (10min)
 Exchange and comment on homework (most amazing
example and an idea). Peer correction and develop ideas to
for project to be presented in the next lesson. (20 min)

 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/ Whole class
 Class vocabulary/ structures
bank
Pairs

 Road trip

Whole
class/ pairs

 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/
 PowerPoint presentation
 Individual Learning Journals

 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/ Whole class 55 min
 Class vocabulary/ structures
bank
Pairs

 Swap pairs and explain proposals (practice for presentations in next lesson). Peer correction. (10 min)

Pairs

 Video fun activity “Timbalake & Perry: If we ever meet again” + subs (10min)

 If we ever meet again

Whole class

 Reflections in individual journals (5min)

 Individual Learning Journals

Individual

Home work: finish presentations for next class.

74

Conclusion
Session 6

 Recap of previous class (5min)
 Presentations of Facebook projects in pairs 1 minute
speaking each. (45 minutes)

Whole class

 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/
 Idea mapping https://bubbl.us/

Pairs
Individual

 Reflections in individual journals (5min)

Resources
Session 1
Intial presentation:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/ESO%203%20A%20initial%20presentation.pptx

Videos Social Network:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/videos/Facebook%20trailer1.mp4 http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/videos/Facebook%20trailer2%20gaps.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/videos/Facebook%20trailer3%20subs.wmv

Videos Julian 20 list:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/videos/Facebook%20Julian1.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/videos/Facebook%20Julian2%20gaps.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/videos/Facebook%20Julian3%20complete%20 subs.wmv

Facebook, me and
my friends activity:
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%201/Facebook%2C%20me%20and%20my%20frien ds%20activity.docx
Session 2
Initial presentation: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/ESO%203%20A%20presentation%202.ppt Funny things:
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/Funny%20things.docx Facebook wedding: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/facebook%20wedding.flv

75

Justin Timberlake: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/Timberlake/Timberlake%20questions%201.docx http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/Timberlake/Timberlake%201.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/Timberlake/Timberlake%202.wmv http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%202/Timberlake/Timberlake%203.wmv Session 3

The 93$ Club:

Session 4
Road trip:

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%203/93%20Dollar%20Club%20Questions.docx http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%203/The%2093%20Dollar%20Club%201.mp4 http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%203/The%2093%20Dollar%20Club%20subs.mp4

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%204/Road%20Movie%20Questions.docx http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%204/Road%20Trip%201.mp4 http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/session%204/road%20trip%20subs%203.mp4

76

Initial Powerpoint presentation “Facebook”
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Unitat%20ESO%203A/ESO%203%20A%20initial%20presentation.pptx

Be responsible for
your own learning

Six sessions to talk about if we
can influence change in our world...

What have I learned?
What do I want to learn?

How do I pass?

What do I need to learn?

ESO 3A

What am I going to do about it?

Teaching Unit : Facebook
Peter HoneEvaluation ESO 3A.xlsx

Written reflexion at the end of

each lesson 20% of grade

Final Grade
Writing: Facebook story
Reading comprehension
Listening comprehension
Speaking: Oral presentations
Individual Learning Journals

20%
10%
10%
15%
20%

77

Examples of video gap-fill activities linked to the Powerpoint presentations

78

79

6.3

Detailed Action-oriented descriptors of Lingualevel

http://dl.dropbox.com/u/4812556/Detailed%20level%20descriptors%20complete.xlsx

80

6.4 Eina de sensibilització
http://www.xtec.cat/lic/convivencia/documents_generals/eina_sensibilitzacio.pdf

81

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Comas Arbós, A. (2007): Estratègies per a la millora de la convivència.. L‟establiment de vincles entre escola, família i entorn. http://www.xtec.es/sgfp/llicencies/200607/memories/1689m.pdf Direcció General de l‟Educació Bàsica i el Batxillerat (2010) In introduction to Santmarti, N. (2010) Avaluar per aprendre.

Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya
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85

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