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Arts and Culture Sector Report
Topics: Culture, Popular culture, High culture, Mass media, Low culture, Leisure / Pages: 37 (7389 words) / Published: Apr 30th, 2014

Arts & Culture Sector
Introduction to Leisure
International Leisure Management
Stenden University
Nina Seepers 213365

Declaration
1. This work has been composed by me, Nina Seepers.
2. This work has not been accepted in any previous application for a degree or diploma by me or anyone else.
3. This work of which this is a record is done wholly by me, Nina Seepers
4. All verbatim extracts have been distinguished by quotation marks and the sources of our information have been specifically acknowledged

Date 20/03/2014

Signature:
Nina Seepers
213365

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Preface:
I have written this report about the leisure industry and its several different sectors. Within this report I have looked more closely to the arts and culture sector, also I have visited several different companies within the different leisure sectors. I feel that this has been a good learning experience, since it has enabled me to broaden my expertise within these sectors, and especially the arts and culture sector.
This Report is part of the module Introduction to Leisure, which focuses on the basic knowledge of the leisure industry. Beforehand we received loads of warnings about the high workload, which this report required. I experienced that these warnings were given with reason. However, I do feel that the writing of this report has been a good learning experience and that it will be helpful to our further education within this programme. Moreover, due to proper planning, the report was finished long before the deadline.
This report has given me insight in the basics of the leisure industry and has helped me to broaden my mind with regard to this education.
I would like to thank Ms Van der Hoeven for her help during the writing of this report as well as the employees of Stenden University’s library personnel for helping us to find reliable sources. Moreover, I would like to thank the VVEM and in particular, Ms van Ommen for providing necessary data.

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Introduction:
This study is based on one of the five sectors within the Leisure Industry. A student makes the report within the first year of Stenden University’s International Leisure Management course. Within this report, several different aspects will be considered. Within the first chapter a definition as well as an explanation of the entire leisure branch will be given, this by defining all five leisure sectors and strengthening these definitions with use of exemplary companies. The second chapter within this report will include in-depth analyses of a chosen sector, namely the Arts and Culture sector. Within this analysis, several aspects will be covered. Information that will be given includes but is not limited to the number of visitors in this given sector, the expenses made within the sector, several different market data, trends and developments and several different policies. Lastly, this part will include a short description of two sub-sectors of the arts and culture sector. The third and last chapter will be covering a field research. The author of this report will conduct a field research with regard to the leisure Industry; these visits will be integrated in the report. 4

Table of Contents
Declaration ............................................................................................................................................................................2
Preface: ...................................................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction:.........................................................................................................................................................................4
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................................................5
Definition Leisure Branch: ..............................................................................................................................................6
The Sports Sector: ................................................................................................................................................................................6
The Recreation Sector: .......................................................................................................................................................................6
The media sector: .................................................................................................................................................................................6
Tourism Sector ......................................................................................................................................................................................7
Arts and Culture Sector: ....................................................................................................................................................................7
Sector: Arts and Culture ...................................................................................................................................................8
Number of visitors/participants: ...................................................................................................................................................8
Theatre: ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Dance: ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Museum: ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Festivals: .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Highbrow: .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Middlebrow: ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Lowbrow: ................................................................................................................................................................................. 10
Music: .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 10
Expenses and spending: .................................................................................................................................................................. 11
Expenses: ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Spending......................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Market data: ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Size: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
History: ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Trends and developments:............................................................................................................................................................. 13
Decreasing participation: ................................................................................................................................................. 13
Differences in generations: .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Traditional culture: ............................................................................................................................................................. 13
Cultural participation via audio-visual media and Internet: ............................................................................ 13
Museums and social media: ............................................................................................................................................. 14
EBooks: ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Employment opportunities: .......................................................................................................................................................... 15
Government policy and expenditure: ........................................................................................................................................ 15
Sub- sectors: ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
Literature: ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
Architecture: ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
Field Research:.................................................................................................................................................................. 17
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Reference List .................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Books and Articles: ........................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Websites: .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

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Definition Leisure Branch:
The leisure industry is a wide varying industry. It offers several different facilities, products and services.
According to Page and Connell (2010), leisure can be defined in three different ways. Firstly, leisure can be looked at as leisure as a period, or focused on an activity or even a state of mind. The second way in which leisure can be defined is in an objective sense, in that way; leisure is defined as the opposite of work or even, when all other obligations are fulfilled. Thirdly and lastly Page and Connell described a subjective manner in which there can be seen as leisure which is a qualitative notion. This last way is focused on the perception of an individual with regard to leisure time. When and only when it is perceived by an individual as enjoying leisure time, it can be called leisure time. In this current day and age, individuals are considered more eager to spend a substantial amount of money on their leisure activities, since the free time of those individuals is decreasing due to globalisation and increasing workload (Hayward,
2002).
Since leisure time can be defined as the perception of an individual, several different leisure activities can be distinguished. These activities can be assembled in five different leisure sectors. For the following sectors a short description will be given: The Sports sector, The Tourism sector, the Recreation sector, and the Media sector. For the Arts and Culture sector a wide and in depth analysis will be given.
The Sports Sector:
According to the council of Europe (n.d.), the sports sector can be defined as all forms of physical activities which, through either casual of organized engagement, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and well-being, creating social interaction, or obtaining competitive results at every level (Torkildsen,
2005). Therefore, with regard to the sports sector, all companies that enable participating in the activity of sports are included. Because of this wide range of companies, the sports sector can be defined as very varied and diverse. It is used for not only leisure activities but also for competitive based sports activities.
A higher awareness of the benefits and importance of sports can be observed among the population, hence the demand for sports activities has been boosted rapidly over the past few years.
Whether an individual sport by going to the gym, playing team sports or individual swimming, sport has become a more substantial part of people’s lives. Moreover, a wide range of products and services as well as several career opportunities are offered by the sports sector. If an individual is asked to think of the sports sector, sports on an individual basis is thought of often. Nevertheless, several other possibilities are available to be engaged in, in this sector. Beside the individuals participating in the sport itself, there are many other roles to be fulfilled within this sector. The roles of trainers, physiotherapists, and nutritionists are included in this case (Senker & Barker 2010).
De Workout Utrecht and the company visited in the fieldtrip, namely Sport Boulevard Enschede can be regarded examples of companies within this sector.
The Recreation Sector:
Recreation is considered to be state of mind, by which a human is provided the feeling of fulfilment and satisfaction. It is defined by feelings of expertise, achievement, excitement, understanding and personal value, and enjoyment. A positive image of oneself is contributed to by recreation. Furthermore, it is seen as life enhancing and a positive response to good experiences, personal achievements, or positive feedback from peers. Moreover, recreational activities are characterized by the fact that they are freely chosen and therefore not mandatory (Torkildsen, 2005). Recreation is considered the ‘light version’ of this industry. Contrary to the other sectors, relaxation and therefore casual leisure are the main issues focused on by this industry (Hayward, 2002).
Due to this fact, the recreation sector can be regarded to as one of the most popular sectors within the leisure industry. Within this sector, several different kinds of companies can be found. These can include but are not limited to drinking establishments, restaurants, multiplex cinemas, bowling allies, and casinos.
Holland Casino (nationwide), as well as Restaurant De Librije (Zwolle) and De Grote Keijzer (Leeuwarden) can be named as examples within this sector.
The media sector:
Media can also be defined as one of the leisure sectors. Different forms of media can be distinguished, for instance Internet platforms on which users can participate in discussions about art, related to the media.
On these websites, users can interact with others and find new information about art (Jenkins & Pigram,

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2003). Many more examples can be given for the media sectors. Comics, photography, books, newspapers, magazines, radio, Television, can be considered Media (Albertazzi & Cobley, 2010).
In this current time, the media has gone through tremendous evolutions. Initially approximately 2000 years BC, writing had become a way of communication. Thus, the alphabet had been created. The alphabet was first implemented in Egypt, after this it has been implemented in Europe in the Middle Ages.
The printing press has been the following evolution within the media industry. From approximately 1500 onwards, the renaissance had been coming into existence. Within this time printed press had start to become increasingly important. From 1870 until 1950, this revolution had started to include telegraphy, photos, films, radio, and finally television. Digitalisation has been the last evolution in the Media sector.
Because of the digitalizing of many products and media-outlets, the media sector had been increasing rapidly in size. In 1993, the World Wide Web had come into existence; this has made media available for many more people within a shorter time. Because of this, people have started interacting differently and faster than ever (Watson, 2008).
Many theories have been made of the power and influence of the media. Four theories about this subject have been made by Murphy (1985). The following statement has been included in the first theory: “ The influence of the media can directly insert opinions and influences within the minds and perceptions of the receiver”. A following theory that was made is the agenda setting theory. In this theory there has been stated that media does not have an influence on the opinion of the receiving person; however there has been stated that it influences the conversational topics of those whom receive the information. The following can be stated as an example in practise of this theory. The radio was turned on by a family; there has been stated that a dangerous couple is on the loose, by the news anchor. The conversational topic of the above-mentioned family has been changed because of that statement. Throughout the conversation, opinions about the subject have been formed by the receivers. According to this example, the media has had an influence on the conversational topic and has led to opinions being formed; the media therefore has no direct influence on opinions of people (Francort & Koudenburg, 2010). Donald Duck, De
Volkskrant, and Fox Sports Nederland are examples of companies that can be considered Media.
Tourism Sector
Many definitions and theories have been made in order to explain the tourism sector. However, the definition that has most commonly been used is the one from World Tourism Organisation, which has stated the following: “The activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four hours for leisure, business and other purposes.” (Page & Connell,
2010)
The WTO (1995) has also defined a set of criteria that an individual requires to be a tourist:
 The individual has to be away from home for at least 24 hours;
 The individual cannot be away from home for longer than one year, otherwise students studying abroad would be tourists as well;
 The individual has to be at least 80 kilometres away from his or her usual environment;
 Business trips and travelling for medical or religious reasons is not seen as tourism;
When one of the above-mentioned requirements has not been met, this individual cannot be defined as tourist, moreover travelling migrants, diplomats, armed forces on military assignments and commuters cannot be considered as tourists. TUI, Corendon and D-Reizen can be considerate to be examples of companies within this sector.
Arts and Culture Sector:
Finally, the arts and culture sector can be named as one of the leisure sectors. According to Hayward
(2002), this sector can involve a wide range of leisure activities, in-house as well as outside of one’s residence. The in-house activities can entail listening to music recordings as well as reading written novels. The leisure activities that can be done outside of the residences include visiting art galleries, going to a theatre, exhibitions and concerts. The focus of this sector is to make arts and different cultural events available for different groups of people. People are becoming more willing and interested in other cultures and arts. Moreover, arts and culture is more accessible and therefore easily shared. In the following chapters, the Arts and Culture sector is further analysed and described. The report is focused on several factors, including economics, the amount of visitors and trends within this sector.

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Sector: Arts and Culture
According to Wyszomirski (2002), the arts and culture sector can be defined as a large, heterogeneous set of individuals or organizations engaged in the creation, production, presentation, distribution and preservation of, and education about aesthetics, heritage and entertainment activities, products and artefacts (Carpenter, 2012). Thus, this sector is a very broad and vivid sector. In order to give a detailed but concise explanation of the arts and culture sector, the report is focused on three sub-sectors, namely theatre, museum, festivals and music.
Number of visitors/participants:
When looking at the number of participants within the arts and culture sector, it is important to define how many people are involved in a specific activity within the sector as well as defining where the activity takes place (Carpenter, 2012). This part of the report is focused solely on the amount of people enjoying and visiting this sector. In further parts of the report the people producing within the sector are further enlightened. Theatre:
Within the theatre sector, several different performances can be defined. The areas that are used for this report are musical performances and dance performances within the
Netherlands. As shown in figure one, the amount of visitors in the Musical sector have been consistent for the past two years. However, in 2010 there had been a slight decline in visitor rate. An explanation for this decline is that it might be influenced by the economic crisis within the Netherlands.
From 2010 until 2011 the prices of the visits have been slightly lowered which is shown directly in the increase in visitors. Another influence is the Broadway shows, these shows are becoming more popular and this results in a Figure 1: Visitors Musical sector over time higher visitor rate. According to the Dutch minister of OWC (2013), there has been a significant increase for visits to the musicals outside of the Netherlands. This can be an explanation for the consistency of the visitor’s rate within the Netherlands, although the Broadway shows and other influences still increase the popularity of the theatre branch, this internationalisation of the branch causes the Dutch branch to stay consistent (Dick & Merret 2007). Currently the amount of visitors within the theatre branch is 446,817 visits (Ministerie van OCW, 2013)
Dance:

Figure 2: Visits dance performances over time

As shown in figure 2, the dance performance branch within the Netherlands is slightly declining. Causes of this decline are possibly the fact that dance performances are not the first choice of theatre visitors
(van Maanen, 2009). Another explanation for the decline in the period from 2011 to 2012 is the limiting of the funds in the arts and culture sector, this causes dance studios to merge with other companies within the sector, which causes the amount of visitors to be registered in another part of the sector. The current amount of visits of the dance performances is 285,781
(Ministerie van OCW, 2013).

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Museum:
Figure 3: Museum visitors over time

The museum sector is a vivid and elaborate sector. In figure 3, the change in participation overtime is illustrated. As is showed, there has been an increase in visitors from 2009 until 2011; there are several ways to explain this change. Firstly, a possibility of the increase is the obsolescence. According to Broek (2010), the age of a person has a strong influence on what kind of cultural expression he or she prefers to visit.
The different generations are differently socialized culturally. This entails that the cultural preference one has during his youth often stays the same when that person gets older. The generations that are often interested in visiting the museums are the baby boom generation and the ones before that; this can explain the increase in the visitor’s rate since this generation was around 65 years old at that time. Since this was the retirement age, this generation had more spare time to enjoy their leisure. In 2012 the retirement age was raised with 2 years to 67, this explains the small decline in the visitors rate. Currently the amount of visitors is 291,872 (Minister of OCW, 2013).
Festivals:
Within the festival branch, a distinction can be made within the different types of festivals, highbrow, lowbrow and middlebrow.
Highbrow:
Highbrow cultural activities embody segment within the broad range of cultural participation.
Nevertheless, this segment is a highly important one; in spite of the fact that many highbrow activities are the least frequently done, highbrow activities are often educational and are opening possibilities within several areas (Hartmann & Kopp, 2001). According to Bourdieu (1990), although this part of culture is often considered as snobby or only for higher classes, it can be a predictor of success in school and work for the middle class. Within the Festival branch in the Netherlands, there are several highbrow festivals.
These festivals are often characterized by theatre related activities and art-house films. Examples of festivals within this area are Oerol, Nederlands Film Festival and World press photo. Within this part of the festival branch, the amount of visitors is estimated at 1,432,139 visitors per year. In table 1 the structure of the highbrow festival industry is illustrated.
As shown in table 1, the main aspect of the highbrow festivals is Film. According to Broek
(2009), the sequential generations have an increasing interest in popular culture, namely popular music, cabaret, and film. This also explains the high participation of performing arts, since this often exists of either music or cabaret. Kind of festival
Performing
arts
Fine arts
Film
Architecture
Literature
Total

Amount of
Visitors
499903

Percentage of branch 34%

100866
683487
133694
14189

8%
48%
9%
1%

1432139

100%

Table 1: Visitor participation Festivals highbrow

Middlebrow:
Obviously, middlebrow is the intermediate of the definitions of high-and lowbrow. It is both a description of easily accessible art, literature, and culture. It is also named rather than purely experience art for an intrinsic value, the middlebrow participants participate in that what they are told to be the best in that field (Woolf 1942). The main focus of this “brow” is to obtain highbrow quality culture and arts but with the effort of the lowbrow sector.
Examples of middlebrow festivals are Lowlands, Down the Rabbit Hole and Secret Garden. The amount of visitors has been collected by VNPF-Podia. This study includes both festivals as well as visits to concert venues. The total amount is 3.34 million visitors in 2012. Moreover, this research focused on the change for visitors from 2011 to 2012. This change was measured by a survey for both the owners of the concert

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venues as well as the owners of festival organizers. 65% of the chosen venues responded. Outcomes within this research were that 47% of the sample had an increase for visitors from the period from 2011 to 2012; moreover, 62% responded that the economic crisis had an effect on the sector. The main effects were the following:
1. Concert venues are taking less risk in programming
2. Concert venues program less.
3. There is a decrease in international offer.
Lowbrow:
Lowbrow is often associated with popular culture or low culture. According to Gans (1999), low culture is in no way focused on neither sociological issues nor abstract concepts. It emphasizes morality but is however limited to domestic and personal problems and the values, which to use for solving these issues.
Low culture is associated with the traditional working class and its values with regard to their conflicting compulsions and patterns of behaviour.
When looking at the festival industry, lowbrow can be seen as the festivals with no particular educational value. Examples of this can be the Glemmer festival in Lemmer and RTL Viert de Zomer in Zwolle.
Music:
Music is a tremendous part of the entertainment and leisure industry. The pleasure of making music is part of many cultures and is done in many different forms (Torkildsen, 2005). Over the past years, the popularity of the popular music forms is increasing. Also the ways one can obtain these music forms are getting technological. According to CBS (2013), the amount of people visiting music performances was
17,064,000 people in 2012. This illustrates that music is significantly present within the Arts and Culture sector. However, there are more ways in which one can participate in Music. Many youngsters, between the age of 12 and 24, use technology to listen to music. Moreover, several music-streaming platforms have come into existence, which enables people to listen to several songs without payment, but in a legal form.
The amount of people currently enlisted in Spotify is over 20 million monthly users.

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Expenses and spending:
Expenses:
Table 2: Expenses in the arts and culture sector

The expenses within the sector arts and culture can be subdivided into different sorts of expenses. In figure 8, these different sorts of expenses are shown. According to
CBS (2013), the main expenses within the sector are purchase expense, depreciation expenses, operational expenses and employment expenses. The employment expenses can be subdivided in Gross salary,
Social contributions, and additional personnel expenses. Lastly, the additional social contributions belong within this subdivision. The other expense subdivision that can again be divided is the operational expenses. This can be divided in energy expenses, housing expenses, equipment and inventory, transport expenses, costs of extra services and additional expenses. This sector’s expenses are in total 120033 million euros in 2012.
Spending
Table 3: Revenues arts and culture sector

According to Carcello (2008), revenue is
Revenues In Arts & Culture income that a company obtains by its
Sector
normal business activities, usually this is
€ 141.446.000.000,00 obtained through the sale of goods and/or Net Revenues
€ 3.035.000.000,00 services to customers. Therefore it can be Additional Revenues concluded that revenues in a sector are a
Total Revenues
€ 144.481.000.000,00 direct result of what customers have spent within a sector. Therefore, in order to give an overview of the spending within the arts and culture sector, table 3 shows the revenues within this sector. As illustrated in table 3, the net revenues of the sector are currently estimated at 141,446 million euros. Net revenues can be defined as revenues after taxes. The additional revenues include these taxes as well as other revenues. Moreover the additional revenues within this sector are 3,035 million euros, this brings the total result of the revenues and therefore the spending within this sector to 144,481 million euros (CBS, 2013). From these numbers can be concluded that a lot of money is spent within this sector 11

Market data:
Size:

Table 4: Amount of institutes in Arts &
Culture

The size of a sector can be defined in several different matters, such as amount of participants, the spending in the sector and the expenses (Kotler, 2010). Since all of the above are already integrated in the study, this chapter will lay emphasis on the amount of companies and institutes within the sector. As shown in table 4, the amount of museums in 2012 entailed 788 institutes. Professional Stage performance institutes are less represented in this sector, namely with 345 institutes. The literature subsector consists of 162 public libraries (CBS, 2013).

Sort of institute
Museums
Proffesional Stage
Performance
Public Libraries

Amount of institutes 788
345
162

Table 5: Amount of Festivals

Another way of looking at the size of a sector is to look at the amount of performances that are carried out. For the sub-sector festivals, this is the way in which the author has determined size of the sector. This is given in table 5. The amount of festivals within the
Netherlands is 715. Thus, the sub-sector for festivals is a large subsector. With more than
700 museums, at least 300 stage performances and more than 700 festivals, it can be said that the arts and culture sector is a wide and big sector, with many different target groups.
History:
According to Janson (1986), arts started in the olden times, over 4 million years ago the people started with arts by making drawings in the several different caves. From that time on, many things have changed.
Buildings have been made since 7000 BC and the Egyptians made sarcophagus for their deceased since
1200 BC. One of the main changes in the arts and culture sector has been the renaissance. Because of this, the entire view of art changed as well as the participation in arts. Technology has also been a tremendous changing factor within the arts and culture, namely in the following ways: Firstly the radio enabled people to not only listen to music but also to be more aware of the arts and culture within and out of the region.
Secondly, the films came in to existence, which created another form of art. Followed by the television, which influenced the arts and culture sector, as a result of this the awareness of the arts in other countries was increased which motivated people to travel to visit these arts institutions. Nowadays, the Internet and smartphones have a significant influence on the arts and culture industry, because it is further enabling people to see different art pieces on a technical device (Lanham, 1993) (Du, 2012).

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Trends and developments:
Within the arts and culture sector, several trends have come into existence. Because the arts and culture sector has been going through a large amount of budget cuts, there have been several trends with regard to both retrieving extra budget as well as cutting costs. The following trends have been defined in the annual report of the minister of OCW:

Decreasing participation:
Figure 4 illustrates a decrease in the participation in cultural activities in the period from 2004 to 2012.
According to SCP (2013), 60% of the Dutch population visited a movie theatre or cinema at least once a year; this is an increase in relation to 2004. One fourth of the Dutch population has visited a pop music performance, cabaret or theatre. Moreover, half the population visited a museum once a year. This decrease can be explained by the increase of electronic purchase is causing a trend of in-home leisure activities, which decrease the time one participates in other activities, such as culture activities (Page & Connell,
2010).

Figure 4: Participation in cultural activities

Differences in generations:
Age has a significant impact on the form of cultural expressions one prefers to visit. Visits to traditional cultural activities are relatively spread over all life phases; however the aging of the population increases the amount of the relative share of the elderly population (Beunders, 2009).
Subsequent generations increase the interest in and popularity of popular cultural activities. Because of this it is to be expected that the popularity of pop music, cabaret, and film will increase even more (Broek,
2010). The aging of the population also creates possibilities. A highly important opportunity for cultural institutions is to attract the older generations. Many institutions have seized this opportunity by signing a covenant called “elderly and its culture”, the goal of this covenant is to increase the culture-participation of the elderly (Broek, 2009)(Ministerie van OCW,2013)
Traditional culture:
Compared to visits to popular cultural expressions, the visits to traditional culture are less affected by the different life phases. Especially the interest in classical music has decreased significantly. The declining line has been stopped; nonetheless, it has not been bend upwards yet (Broek, 2009)
Cultural participation via audio-visual media and Internet:
Another trend within art and culture is the participation via the media and Internet. Media has a great influence on the current population’s lives. People born after 1960 spend more time watching television on average than working (Elchardus, 2009).
According to SPOT (2012), the time people spend using media is averagely 7 hours per day. The most dominant media outlet is the television. The second most popular media outlet is the Internet. When looking at the media, one sees that ‘ culture and entertainment’ is still only a small portion of the media sector. Nevertheless, there has been a significant increase in the usage and participation in the arts and culture sector.
Figure 5: Usage Media in Arts and Culture Sector
Figure 5 shows the usage of media within the arts and culture sector. It illustrates that people are no longer solely consuming within a lounge but as well trough different media outlets (Sonck & Haan, 2012). The rise of smartphones and tablets has not yet been implemented in this study’s result, however one can expect that consumption of media through smartphones and tablets will grow in the coming years
(Cloin, 2011).

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Museums and social media:
According to Barrett (2012), the engagement of museums in social media is both a challenge and an opportunity for the future of these institutes. The potential of social media to be used in museums causes new pressures, since the publics’ expectations are changing. Mainly
Amount of Fans
Museum
/Likes/Followers
Position in the World-top in the museum sector there is extensive tracking of usage of social media (Museum Analytics, 2013). Museums use social media to increase the loyalty and involvement in the institution.
Facebook
According to Wankel (2010), it is highly important to use social media in businesses. Moreover, the proper use of social media is even more pressing.
An example of a museum using social media is the Van Gogh
Museum, which has over 2.7 million followers on Google+. Table 4 illustrates what the amount of followers of several large and wellknown museums is on several different social media platforms. It can be concluded that Internet has created a new playing field where museums and other cultural institutions need to be visible for the general public in order to compete with both each other as well as with other leisure activities (OCW, 2013).

Rijksmuseum

150000

39

Van Gogh

140000

43

Anne Frank Huis

61000

97

65000

51

Twitter
Van Gogh
Stedelijk Museum
Amsterdam
Boijmans van
Beuningen

55000

66

28000

115

Table 4: Social media in Museums

EBooks:
Next to the other cultural sectors, also the literature is highly influenced by the broad range of possibilities the Internet has to offer. An example of this is the revolution of eBooks. Although the portion of eBooks with regard to the entire book market is relatively small, a significant growth of the popularity and offer has been identified (Hua, 2002). For a long period the e-reader was the main device used to read eBooks, but currently the tablets have taken over that leading position.
One of the concerns with regard to this trend is illegal sources of eBooks and its influence on the profitability of the book industry. According to SMB (2013), the right business model can however transfer the illegal sources to a legal and profitable form. In order to counteract the illegal downloads of eBooks, a new form of streaming platform for eBooks is starting to develop. By using this platform, writers will be paid for the people reading their books, by several advertisements placed on the platform (NOS,
2014).

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Employment opportunities:

The main policies of the Dutch government with regard to arts and culture are the following:
 Cultural education: enabling as many children and youngsters to experience and come in contact with culture. Figure 6: Subsidy arts and culture sector
 Renewal and Talent: Art institutions are given the possibility to develop art and show products and art that has not yet been seen by the general public.
 Entrepreneurship: Institutions strengthen their relationships with financiers, obtain new income sources and define new target groups. This increases the incomes of the different institutions and therefore this is subsidized.
 Internationalisation: as mentioned before, internationalization is becoming more and more pressing. There are several opportunities, which enable the cultural sector to present itself in an international manner. Examples of this are exchanging art as well as art-and other-cultural programmes.
The funding of the several different arts sectors is shown in figure six; noticeable is the fact that museums receive much more funding than the other sectors.

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Informational services IT and informational services

Radio and television networks
Telecommunicatio
n

Film and television production and audio recordings

Publisher

Publishers, Film, radio and television J. Information and communication Government policy and expenditure:
There are several policies made by the Dutch government with regard to culture. The focus of these policies is to enable, promote, and sustain the Dutch cultural institutes. Because of the budgetary deficit caused by the economic crisis, several governments are forced to start a retrenchment. This is also noticeable in the arts and culture sector. Starting 2013 there will be a yearly budget for subsidy from the
Dutch government is 700 million euros; this is a decrease of 200 million a year. With this retrenchment, the government attempts to spare the Dutch museums, cultural heritage, and highly successful institutions. Highly successful institutions can be described as institutions with both national and international success, such as several dance and opera institutions. There are many institutes in the arts and culture sector, which are not subsidized. However, the government expects cultural institutions to be focussed on entrepreneurship even more. This in order to generate own income as well as increasing the loyalty of their target groups. (Rijksoverheid, 2013)

IT-services

Table 4: Employment in Arts and Culture

Within the arts and culture industry,
Period 2011 several employment opportunities are
Subject
available in several different sectors; these sectors are shown in table 4.
Moreover, in table 4, the amount of available fulltime jobs as well as the amount of people fulfilling these jobs is shown. One fulltime job is abbreviated
Employ
Ft/e
244.1
50.2
29.2
13.3
7.7
31.6
162.4
x100 ment with Ft/e. As is shown in the table, it is
0
opportu very common in the arts and culture nities Amou
322.1
70.4
34.3
26.5
9.6
39.2
212.5
industry to have more than one person nt of peopl fulfilling one full time job. Moreover, there e are several areas one can find x100 0 employment in within this sector. An employment sector that stands out is the Film and television production and audio recordings: within this sector a tremendous amount of employees have part-time jobs, which can be concluded from the fact that the amount of available fulltime jobs is much smaller than the amount of employees fulfilling these jobs.
The same phenomenon can be found in the employment sector informational services. The sector that offers most employment opportunities is the information and communication sector, by which approximately 2,441,000 jobs are hosted (CBS, 2011).

151,5

10.8

192,4

20.1

Sub- sectors:
Literature:
Table 5: Literature Sector
One of the sub-sectors within the arts and culture
Literature Sector sector is Literature. Literature can be defined as all
2007
2008
2009
2010 written work or as writing that possesses literary
Amount of merit. Another definition is language that bookshops 1780
1780
1770
1750
foregrounds literariness as opposed to ordinary
Revenues in high end language. The different forms of literature can be books (in milion classified, as whether it is fiction or non-fiction and euros) 608
645
642
619,5
whether it is poetry or prose. A way to further
Amount of new titles distinguish literature is to categorize it to the in central category novel, short story or drama. It can be bookhouses 13019
14435
14695
14978
further categorized according to historical periods or the genre. Within the sub-sector literature, one can find bookshops, libraries, and eBooks but also several museums and archives are devoted to literature. Not only written books are considerate as literature, also audiobooks and braille texts. The amount of bookshops as well as revenues is given in table five; moreover, this table shows the amount of new titles that have been brought to the book market in the last few years.
Architecture:
Another subsector within the arts and culture sector is architecture. It involves many different kinds of structures, such as buildings, bridges but also garden architecture is part of this sector. Only within the
Netherlands, there are over 500 architectural objects
(Vollaard, 2009). Several examples of Dutch architectural objects are shown in figure 7. This image shows that architecture can be both modern as well as traditional.
Architecture started 8000 years BC, where humans started to create buildings, which were functional. After this in ancient
Egypt, several architectural objects were made in order to create houses for the gods. These houses were less about functionality and more about worshipping the gods, thus the buildings had to look special and expensive. Greek architecture is very controversial compared to the Egyptian architecture; it was focussed on open and new buildings stores and temples. Currently architecture is often focussed on glass buildings and visual aspects. Moreover, sustainability has become a trending topic within the architectural sector (Copplestone, 1963).

16

2011
1710

589,5

15396

Field Research:
Within this report a field research was done. The company visited within the arts and culture sector is the
Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterloo. The research was done by means of a questionnaire; the questions and answers are stated below.
What is the amount of yearly visitors of the museum, and how is it influenced by seasonality?
Yearly there are approximately 33.000 visitors in the museum. Since the museum is a combination of an indoor museum as well as a statue garden, the different seasons have a tremendous effect on the visitors’ rate. This is because the product of Kröller-Müller is the museum and arts as well as the surrounding nature, de Veluwe.
2. How did the implementation of the Museum Jaarkaart affect the visitors’ rate of the Museum?
Around 25% of the visitors is a card member, this is according to the national average. However, it is hard to determine if the card affects the visitors rate, since there is no way to predict if the visitors would have come to the Museum if they weren’t a card member. Moreover, the main reason for implementation of the Museum Jaarkaart is to decrease the influence of seasonality, by attempting to spread the Museum Jaarkaart visitors to the less popular visiting times, such as in January.
3. How does the museum target the aging of the population?
Because the museum is a one level museum without stairs, it is highly accessible for elderly as well as people in wheelchairs. Moreover, the museum has a partnership with an association existing of “ vital seniors” 4. How many employees does the museum employ and how did the crisis influence this?
The museum currently had 65 full time employees. This means that 65 times 32 hours per week are available for employees. The main labour opportunities are within either Facilities or Security. The crisis had a tremendous effect on the subsidising of the different museums, therefore also on the
Kröller-Müller. Because of the crisis around 10 ft./e have been deducted from the museum.
5. How does the economic crisis affect the museum’s ticket price?
The crisis did not affect the ticket price. However, for change in pricing the consumer price index is taken into account.
6. How does Kröller-Müller Finance its activities?
The museum’s activities consist of several different activities, which generate income. Firstly there is
Sponsoring and gifts of royalty Following there are the substitutions and lastly the income from international exhibitions.
7. In what way does the Kröller-Müller remain attractive to their sponsors and in what way can the sponsors influence the museum?
The Kröller-Müller has a newsletter for their sponsors; further arrangements can be made with regard to free entrance, events, discounts etc. However the museum is in no way affected by the sponsors in their daily routine, this because the museum has signed an agreement that this will be protected.
8. How does the museum make use of social media?
The museum is subscribed in Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest. The main goal of this usage is to create commitment to the institution; moreover, the museum always tries to anticipate to current news items.
9. Does the museum work with special packages or special events for different target groups?
Within the holiday period, there are several Family/ Children programs in the museum. Moreover, the museum creates discounts for students as well as large groups.
10. What is Kröller-Müller’s USP?
The unique selling point of the museum is the high brand awareness. The museum is known all over the world. 1.

17

Conclusion
This study was focused on the Leisure industry. In this study the leisure industry was described by defining the several different leisure sectors, tourism, media, recreation, sports and arts & culture.
Following the arts and culture sector was elaborated on, with regard to several subjects. The first subject was the participation/visitors within the arts and culture sector. Following a chapter was dedicated to the expenses and spending within the sector. Succeeding chapter was focused on market data of the arts and culture sector, this with regard to size, structure and growth of the sector. The next chapter was focused on the trends and developments within the sector, such as social media and eBook usage of the arts and culture sector. After this a chapter was devoted to the employment opportunities within this sector, within this chapter a description was given of the several employment sectors the arts and culture sector has to offer. Moreover, the amount of fulltime jobs as well as the amount of people working in these different employment sectors has been described. Continuing, the different government policies of the
Dutch government, with regard to the arts and culture sector have been elaborated on. In this chapter, a part has also been dedicated to the different expenditures the Dutch government has with regard to the given sector. Lastly the sector was described by providing two sub-sectors and describing these subsectors. In the last chapter of the assignment the field trip was implemented, thus the several interview questions as well as the answers given by the different visited companies have been described.

18

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