This essay will have three sections. The first section will briefly outline the concepts made by Clarke and Critcher (1995) of material and cultural' (Clarke, J. and Critcher, C. Leisure and Inequality' in C. Critcher et.al.,1995, Sociology of Leisure: A Reader. London: E+FN Spon, p247) constraints to leisure. The concepts shall be detailed, and briefly explained and elaborated. The second section will illustrate these concepts by relating them to a article by Green, E., Hebron, S. and Woodwood, D (1990). This article recognises that gender is a key dimension in both the public and private spheres of leisure. This shall be further supplemented with other sources that also highlight gender differences, and supports Clarke and Critcher's (1995) concepts. The final section will reflect upon factors that have enabled or constrained my own leisure experiences.
John Clarke and Chas Critcher (1995) argue that there is an inequality of leisure opportunity' (ibid., p247), and that this is made up of two aspects they term material and cultural'(ibid., p247). They describe the material aspect as being the access to key resources' (ibid., p248), these include time and money. This material aspect can be described as a constraint to leisure, because simply if you do not process the time you cannot have or gain the leisure, it is a constraint preventing your leisure from occurring. Clarke and Critcher (1995) argue that the cultural aspect of the inequality of leisure is the perception of what is appropriate leisure behaviour' (ibid., p248) for a member of a particular social group. These perceptions are socially constructed, and may be based on a number of factors, gender stereotype for example. They are crucially held by people in a position to enforce these expectations. This cultural constraint can be described as a constraint through leisure as it is reflecting and perpetuating the inequalities present in society, and acts as a further agent for social...
Bibliography: PRIMARY SOURCES:
Clarke, J. and Critcher, C. ‘Leisure and Inequality ' in Critcher, C., Bramham, P. and Tomilinson, A., 1995, Sociology of Leisure: A Reader. London: E+FN Spon
Green, E., Hebron, S. and Woodward, D. ‘Women 's Leisure Today ' in Critcher, C., Bramham, P. and Tomilinson, A., 1995, Sociology of Leisure: A Reader. London: E+FN Spon
Green, E., Hebron, S. and Woodward, D. 1990, Women 's Leisure, What Leisure?, London: MacMillan
Harris, D., 2005, Key Concepts in Leisure Studies, London: Sage
Garland, G. and Rowe, M., 2001, Racism and Anti-Racism in Football, Hampshire: Palgrave
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