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Argumentative Essay on Smoking
Topics: Democracy / Pages: 4 (902 words) / Published: Aug 14th, 2013

• The two methods of curing the mischiefs of faction as defined by Madison are one by removing its causes; the other is, by controlling its effects which is controlling everyone’s opinions, interests and passions. Madison defined that faction was a number of citizens, whether a majority or minority gets united and activated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest of the community.
• Among the two factions discussed by him, the first is to remove its causes which is destroying its liberty which is essential to its existence. Taking away liberty and making the existence impossible will be of no use and this remedy would become more of a problem rather than the original disease.
• The latent causes of faction are sown in the nature of man. It means that the causes of faction are built in the nature of the man deep inside and they have become like their own nature which cannot be changed. Among people different opinions about their religions, cultures, on government and many other aspects concerning their lives. Discriminating people with their life styles, the status, different opinions on different lifestyles has divided into groups depending on their opinions, and so they developed groups which formed more like opposing each other rather than being together. I am from India. Andhra Pradesh is one of the states and it has been recently divided into two different states, before this bill passed I was totally against for dividing the state, but as of the political strategies and everything, the state has been divided. So I always had an opinion about people who supported for not dividing the state and for people who wanted the state to be divide. Now nothing can be done as the state has been divided and now I have opinion on people who made this happen.

• That form of government in which the powers of sovereignty are vested in the people and are exercised by the people, either directly, or through representatives chosen by the people, to whom those powers are specially delegated. Let’s say there's an island of 1 million people, running a direct democracy, in order for a new law to be passed, they must hold a national election. If instead they had a republic in which a small number of people were elected to represent different parts of the island, you can pass a law without needing a national election and all the trouble that brings (time it takes to count votes for example). This is simply because you can reduce the amount of people needed to vote on a law from 1 million down to less than 100 depending on how you divide up the island. That form of government in which the sovereign power resides in and is exercised by the whole body of free citizens directly or indirectly through a system of representation, as distinguished from a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy. Direct Democracies can also be quite unstable, so many people voting can result in rapidly shifting consensus meaning that rather than Power residing with the People it either just resides with the most Conservative or with those who can manipulate the largest number of people.
• The Federalist Paper No.10 argues that a republic is capable of controlling the effects of faction, more so than a democracy. The reason put forward is that a system of representation is more capable of protecting the rights of individuals and minorities, as well as being better able to balance the needs of the public good. Madison notes that representatives are more divorced from the issues being raised by factions and consequently better able to create just legislation that is compatible with rights and the public good. In the essay Madison argues that a danger of a representative system is in having too few representatives as the passions or corruptions of an individual representative can skew the system. From this Madison argues that the republican system scales better and works more effectively the larger the republic is.
• Madison's devotion to the principles of a republic and liberty was uncompromising and despite the pressures of the war he refused to enact legislation or measures that would compromise this. Unlike later presidents such as Abraham Lincoln of George W. Bush who both suspended habeous corpus in times of pressure on government. Madison believed that adherence to the principles of a republic gave America an advantage over Britain and compromising that through government oppression would make the US no better than a monarchy. He was proved correct as the US was able to thwart British attentions on the US. Madison sees faction as an unavoidable in a polity of maximum liberty, and consequently seeks to minimize the violence of faction through the system; in other words controlling the effects of faction. Representative government is the process by which Madison seeks to temper this. Madison uses this argument toward the notion that a democracy is flawed as it allows individuals to be judges in their own case. This supports the Aristotelian view that an understanding of common good and hence virtue is exclusive to the idle and ruling classes. This is a repugnant meme. If taxpayers had greater control over where their tax contributions were going, it would over-whelming be to common good programs such as public transport, medical research and far, far less on farming subsidies or the industrial-military complex.

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