November 23, 2013
Identification of Terms- Unit 3
1 (4) Shakers
Who: A group of religious people who derived their name from a unique ritual in which they would “shake” themselves free of sin. They were most well known for their celibacy, which meant that most Shakers entered the religion on their own. Also, they embraced the idea of sexual equality and believed God was not clearly male or female.
When: Founded in the 1770s
Significance or Impact: The Shakers made a redefinition of traditional sexuality and gender roles central to their society.
2 (11) Battle of San Jacinto
What: The battle in which General Sam Houston defeated the Mexican army and took Santa Anna Prisoner. During the surrender, American troops took killed many of the Mexican soldiers out of vengeance for the execution at Goliad.
When: April 23, 1836
Significance or Impact: The Battle of San Jacinto was a turning point for the people of Texas because while Santa Anna was a prisoner, he was pressured to sign a treaty that gave Texas its independence. Even though Mexican troops tried to win Texas back, they were unsuccessful.
3 (14) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
What: In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded California and New Mexico, and acknowledged Rio Grande as the Texas border. The United States, in return, promised to assume any financial claims the new citizens had against Mexico and pay Mexico $15 million.
When: February 2, 1848
Significance or Impact: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo marked the end of the Mexican War, led to vast new territorial gains, and created a new set of troubling and divisive issues. It established the new boundary, which gave the U.S. much more land.
4 (15) Wilmot Proviso
What: Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania introduced an amendment to the appropriation of the bill prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico.
When: August 1846
Significance or Impact: The Wilmot Proviso helped spread the sectional debate and showed that there would be future problem over the slavery issue. While the government tried finding new solutions, the Southern militants contended that all Americans had equal rights in the new territories, which meant that they could take their slaves into that territory.
5 (16) Popular Sovereignty
What: Popular sovereignty would allow the people of each territory, through their legislature, to decide the status of slavery there.
When: Originated mid 1840s
Significance or Impact: Popular sovereignty served only to enforce the sectionalism that was becoming even more intense. It also meant that people within each territory would be fighting and arguing over whether the territory would be a free or slave territory.
6 (22) Gadsden Purchase
What: Secretary of War Jefferson Davis sent James Gadsden, a southern railroad builder, to Mexico where he persuaded the Mexican government to accept $10 million in exchange for a strip of land that today comprises part of Arizona and New Mexico.
Significance or Impact: The Gadsden Purchase facilitated a southern route for the transcontinental railroad and served to accentuate the sectional rivalry.
7 (23) Kansas-Nebraska Act
What: Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which introduced the Nebraska territory, split it into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas, repealed the Missouri Compromise, and left the territorial legislature to determine the status of slavery in the territory.
When: January/May 1854
Significance or Impact: The Kansas-Nebraska Act caused the division and destruction of the Whig Party; it divided the Northern Democrats who strongly believed in the Missouri Compromise; it led to the birth of the Republican Party, which included the Democrats and Whigs who were against Douglas’s bill; and it created chaos in the Kansas territory between those who wanted it to be a free state and those who wanted it to be a slave...
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