Approach to care

Topics: Cancer, Cancer staging, Oncology Pages: 5 (1576 words) Published: November 16, 2013


Approach to Care

Pathology and Nursing Management of Clients Health
NRS - 410V

Approach to Care of Cancer
Cancer is a term used for diseases in which irregular cells divide without any control and have the capability to penetrate and infect normal body tissue through the blood and lymph system. Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States, exceeded barely by heart disease. According to the CDC Cancer Statistics and Data, there were more than 1.45 million people diagnosed with various kind of cancer between 1999 and 2007 and out of those more than 562,000 people died due to cancer (cdc.gov, 2012). Currently there are more than 200 different types of cancer that have been discovered. Cancer could be developed in any organ of the body. There are more than 60 different organs in the body where cancer cells can form and invade body tissues. While the origin of several cancers remains unknown, there are several cancers that are caused due to various reasons like exposure to chemicals, great alcohols intake, smoking, atmosphere poisons, sunlight disclosure, inherited, radiations, and illness. This paper will talk about the approach to, diagnosing of and staging of cancer, as well as the symptoms, side effects of treatment, and methods used to diminish physical and psychological effects of cancer and treatment. Cancer Diagnosis and Staging

How can cancer be diagnosed? Unfortunately researchers have not invented a device to diagnose cancer with one single test. The comprehensive assessment of a patient generally requires a detailed history and physical assessment along with analytical testing. Several tests are required to decide whether a person has cancer, or if another situation is imitating the warning signs of cancer. In order to diagnose the existence of cancer, a doctor must investigate the affected tissue under a microscope. Therefore, when a person experiences some of the warning signs for cancer or the outcomes of screening tests show the potential existence of cancer, a doctor will suggest that the patient have a biopsy test. A biopsy is the surgical procedure that removes a small portion of tissue to investigate under a microscope. Microscopic assessment will provide evidence for the doctor as to whether the tumor is truly present. If it is present, they will analyze whether it is a non-cancerous or cancerous cell. There are three ways to perform biopsy: needle biopsy (taking a small portion of tissue by inserting a needle into a doubtful area), surgical biopsy (removal of an entire or partial portion of the tumor) and endoscopy (using a thin lighted tube to investigate suspicious areas of the body and take pictures). Once the doctor verifies the presence of cancer through a biopsy, the doctor has to also verify the growth rate of the cancerous cell. Biopsy provides the doctor with critical information such as whether the tumor is cancerous or non- cancerous, what type of cancer and the growth of the tumor. Once the cancer has been diagnosed, the doctor will begin to further investigate the stage, or level, of the cancer. This procedure is known as “staging” and it informs the doctor about the severity of the cancer. Treatment assessments are based on the outcome of staging. The TNM system is one of the most commonly utilized cancer staging systems. Nearly all medical facilities utilize the TNM system as their main technique to report cancer. The TNM assessment system is based on the amount and/or level of the main tumor (T), the amount of dispersion to close by lymph nodes (N), and the existence of metastasis (M) also known as secondary tumors produced as a result of the extend of cancer cells to other components of the body. A numeric value is added to every letter to specify the amount and/or level of the main tumor and the extent of cancer growth. Most types of cancer uses TNM assessment system to stage the intensity of the cancer. However, some...

References: (2012, 07 23). Retrieved from Cancer Institute NSW: http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer
Cancer Staging. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Cancer Insitiute: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
Chemotherapy. (2008). Retrieved from MedicineNet.com: www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=217
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